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The thermal transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves through the vacuum of space is called

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Radiation

Explanation:

There are three ways in which thermal transfer occurs:

1. By transmission, when the transmission is made by direct contact.

2. By convection, the transfer of heat into fluids (such as water or air, for example).

3. By Radiation, according to the electromagnetic waves (can travel by any medium and in a vacuum)

So in the outer space that is vacuum, this means that the energy cannot be transmitted by convection, nor by conduction. It must be transmitted by electromagnetic waves capable of traveling with or without a medium, and this is called radiation.