The term statistics It comes from the Latin statisticum collegium (“Council of state”) and its Italian derivative statista (“Statesman or politician”). On 1749, the German Gottfried Achenwall started using the german word statistik to designate the state data analysis. Therefore, the origins of statistics are related to the government and its administrative bodies.
Today it can be said that compilation and the data interpretation obtained in a study is the task of statistics, considered as a branch of the mathematics. The statistics (the result of the application of a statistical algorithm to a group of data) allow decision-making within the government sphere, but also in the world of business and commerce.
In addition to all the above, we must make it clear that for this branch of Mathematics to take place and develop its work, it must have a series of instruments that have become fundamental. Specifically, we refer to the so-called measurement levels (interval, nominal, ratio and ordinal), observational studies and also statistical analysis techniques.
This last group of tools should include some as well-known and important as statistical frequency, analysis of variance, statistical graph, regression analysis, Student’s t test or confirmatory factor analysis.
The applied Statistics can be divided into two branches: the Descriptive statistics (refers to the data collection, description, visualization and summary methods, which can be presented in numerical or graphic form) and the statistical inference (The generation of the models and predictions related to the studied phenomena, taking into account the random aspect and the uncertainty in the observations).
In addition to applied statistics, there is also a discipline called mathematical statistics, which covers the theoretical bases of the subject.
When speaking of this scientific branch we cannot ignore the fact that in Spain there is what is known as the National Institute of Statistics (INE). An organism is of great value because it is in charge of undertaking a series of essential functions for the State. Specifically, and according to current legislation, its mission is to carry out, for example, the different demographic and economic censuses.
The electoral census and statistical operations around the national accounts are other works carried out by this aforementioned body, which has among its most relevant areas the Department of Planning, Coordination and Statistical Dissemination as well as the Department of Economic Accounts and Employment or the Department of Sampling and Data Collect.
All this without forgetting that in Spain there is also an Interministerial Statistics Commission, a Higher Statistics Council and an Interterritorial Statistics Committee.
The statistical-mathematical methods, for their part, emerged from the probability theory, which calculates the frequency with which a result occurs in an experiment under sufficiently stable conditions.
At present, statistical practices have advanced and have been perfected thanks to the creation of precise instruments that allow the development of public policies.