The Latin word badius, which can be translated as “reddish”, arrived at our tongue What spleen. According to Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), the concept may refer to a coppery color with a tendency to yellowish.
The most common use of the notion, however, is in the realm of anatomy. The spleen is a viscera of vertebrate animals whose shape varies, but is usually located near the stomach, on its left side.
The spleen, reddish in color, contributes to the development of the lymphocytes (cells lymphatics that participate in immune reactions) and in the destruction of red blood cells that have already expired.
In the human being, the spleen is oblong and flattened in shape. It is usually eight and a half centimeters wide and about thirteen centimeters long, with a thickness of three and a half centimeters and a weight that exceeds 125 grams but does not reach 200.
East organ It is located in the upper left sector of the abdominal cavity and is linked to the left kidney, diaphragm, and pancreas. The spleen is usually not palpable in adults.
Among the functions of the spleen in the human body are the maturation and elimination of red blood cells and cellular and humoral immunity. When the organ presents some type of damage or pathology and must be excised either totally or partially, an appeal is made to splenectomy. This surgical intervention is usually carried out through the method known as laparoscopy.
Also known as splenomegaly, spleen hypertrophy occurs as a consequence of another disorder, and is not considered a disease proper. The number of problems that can cause it is very high, which is why it is necessary to rule out certain conditions before finding the specific cause. It is important to note that when the spleen is enlarged it needs a greater volume of blood and if it does not receive it it can be damaged or even stop working completely.
Since the Causes of spleen hypertrophy are so many, it is necessary to divide them into several groups, as can be seen in the following list:
* infections: hepatitis, brucellosis, visceral leishmaniasis, infectious mononucleosis, psittacosis, malaria, syphilis, subacute bacterial endocarditis and tuberculosis;
* anemia: hereditary spherocytosis, hereditary elliptocytosis, thalassemias and anemia sickle cell;
* myeloproliferative disorders and hematological neoplasms: leukemia, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma and other lymphomas;
* thesaurism: In this group of possible causes of spleen hypertrophy are several diseases, such as Gaucher, Letterer-Siwe, Hand-Schüller-Christian, Niemann-Pick and Wolman.
In addition to the causes just mentioned, there are others that cannot be easily classified, and among them we find: cirrhosis, amyloidosis, thrombosis of the portal or splenic vein, cysts in the spleen, syndrome Felty’s disease, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pressure on the portal or splenic vein.
With respect to symptom hypertrophy, are difficult to identify as there are not many and may resemble other disorders. For example, given the proximity between the spleen and the stomach, it may occur that it compresses it and that the subject feels full despite not having eaten any food. Back pain in the region near the spleen and discomfort in the upper left area of the abdomen are also common.
The treatment of hypertrophy of the spleen usually focuses on the underlying disorder, although there are also specific recommendations for patients, such as avoiding any activity that may cause blows or impacts against the spleen area, since under these conditions it is more prone to tears and bleeding that is impossible to control.