Proton comes from a Greek word that means “first”. It is a subatomic particle with a positive electric charge that, together with neutrons, form the nucleus of the atoms. The atomic number The proton determines the chemical properties of that atom.
We have to make it clear that the proton was discovered in the early twentieth century by the scientist Ernest Rutherford. Specifically in the year 1918 was when he made known the existence of this element. However, other figures who addressed this issue are JJ Thompson or Eugene Goldstein.
In the case of the field of Chemistry, it is necessary to underline the fact that when we speak of proton we are referring to several possible elements. On the one hand, that can be the hydrogen cation and can also be used as the atomic number of protons that an atom in question has.
Protons are classified within the category of baryons (the subatomic particles made up of three quarks). In the specific case of protons, they are composed of two up quarks and one down quark. Its antimatter equivalent is antiproton or negative proton, with the same magnitude of load but opposite sign.
The action of the electromagnetic force makes the charge of the proton opposite and equal (in absolute value) to the charge of the electron.
The properties of protons allow the spectroscopy from nuclear magnetic resonance, a technique which consists of the application of a magnetic field to a substance to detect the existing crust around the protons in the nucleus. From this information, the structure of the molecules studied can be reconstructed.
This type of technique is possible since the proton has a spin (intrinsic angular momentum) and therefore a magnetic moment. The proton also complies with the exclusion principle.
Normally we talk about protons and electrons at the same time, which have the characteristic that they are opposites.
Thus, in the first place, it should be emphasized that protons have a series of characteristics that define and differentiate them from others. Specifically, these are: they have a positive charge, they can be found in the nucleus of the atom in question and the mass number is the result of adding that of protons and neutrons.
Second, as we have mentioned before, electrons are presented as opposite to protons and are defined by these hallmarks: they do not have what would be a fixed position, they have a negative charge, they have such a small mass that it is basically insignificant. and that makes them add to the mass … To all this we should add the fact that they have the peculiarity that they are in the d, f, s and p orbitals.
Nuclear physics, meanwhile, uses protons in accelerators to attack nuclei and produce fundamental particles.
In the field of physical and of the chemistry, the proton is the hydrogen cation. In this sense, acids are proton emitters and bases are proton receptors.