If we search for the term syntagma in the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy we will find that it is a concept that is used in the grammar to refer to a group or set of words that have a certain function.
In the syntax these groups are called syntactic constituents and they serve to form other subgroups of words that are called sub-constituents. Within a phrase there is a fundamental word that receives the name of syntactic core; without it the group would not exist as such, since it is the one that provides the basic characteristics for the formation of that group. East nucleus It will also be responsible for naming the phrase. For example, if the nucleus of a phrase is a verb, we will be in front of a verbal group.
It can be said that a phrase is a syntactic unit composed of words and morphemes that are organized hierarchically around the syntactic core. All prayers they can be decomposed into various phrases that are linked by syntactic and semantic relationships.
It is important to clarify that syntax is the area of grammar that is responsible for studying and organizing the function of words within statements, it is both closely linked to the form of words (studied by morphology) and their meanings (interest in semantics). In addition, we must bear in mind the various units that make up the syntax, these are: syntagm, proposition, sentence and body.
Phrases can be classified as endocentric and exocentric. The endocentric phrases they are those that suppose maximum projections of its nucleus and that share the same grammatical category as him. The exocentric phrases, on the other hand, they lack nucleus.
At present, the most frequent classification made of this type of structure divides them into two large groups: Lexical phrases and functional phrases.
Within the lexical phrases there is a varied subgroup called:
* Nominal Phrase (SN): is a set of words that are linked around a noun, which is the core of the phrase.
* Prepositional Phrase (SPREP: it is the only one that does not receive the name of the nucleus of the phrase but of a word whose function is to link two parts of the phrase, which is always a preposition.
* Adjectival Syntagma (SADJ): this group of words are linked from the nucleus which is always a adjective.
* Adverbial Phrase (SADV): in this case the kernel is a adverb, whose fundamental function is to provide coherence to prayer.
* Verbal Syntagma (SV): the core is a verb around which the rest of the components of the sentence revolve.
The functional phrases, on the other hand, are those whose nucleus does not present lexical meaning. They can be divided into time phrases (an auxiliary verb), complementary phrases (a subordinate nexus) and determining phrases (an indicator of definition, quantity or type of reference).
When we try to study the various phrases we must always be attentive to discover what is the function that each one performs within a sentence. We can understand this by isolating the nucleus to discover what type of word it is, we will be able to know what its function is within the message. In the case of those phrases that lack a nucleus, we will have to pay more attention to the context in order to arrive at a good understanding of their usefulness within the sentence.
Finally, it is important to say that the only way to learn to use a language correctly is by familiarizing yourself with the various components of it; therefore, to know the function of the syntagms and in general the various parts of the syntax is essential to be able to express ourselves effectively.