In Latin it is where we can find the etymological origin of the term genome in question. Specifically, we can state that it derives from “genus”, which can be translated as “lineage”, “birth” or even “lineage”.
In addition, it should be noted that this term was created at the beginning of the 20th century. Specifically, this is something that the botany professor Hans Winkler (1877 – 1945) did in 1920, who was working as a teacher at the University of Hamburg (Germany). Specifically, he chose to shape a word that combined two essential elements in his work and research: gene and chromosome.
The succession of nucleotides what forms the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of a species or individual is called genome. It can be said, therefore, that the genome is the genetic material.
It should be noted that nucleotides are organic compounds which are made up of a phosphoric acid, a nitrogenous base and a sugar. In the case of DNA, the sugar in question is the deoxyribose and the nucleotide is called deoxyribonucleotide.
The sequence of deoxyribonucleotides present in DNA determines the genome. In the case of diploid organisms, by having pairs of homologous chromosomes, their cells have two copies of the genome. Instead, haploid organisms they have one single copy. The chromosomesMeanwhile, they are condensed DNA strands found in the nucleus of cells, with a constant number in the cells of each species.
In the genome of a living being there is always a large amount of information. A single DNA molecule would have about 20 billion of bits, according to the calculations of scientists. That is why its decoding and writing is very complicated.
The human genome It is made up of the DNA sequence which is in 23 pairs of chromosomes. Twenty-two of those pairs, present in the nucleus of diploid cells, they are autosomal chromosomes; the remaining pair is the one that determines the sex (XY for males and XX for females).
Decoding the information of the human genome is very important since these data refer to the organization and functioning of cells in tissues and organs. Knowing the genome, therefore, helps to diagnose diseases and to forecast its course. In 2003, it was announced that the sequence of the human genome could be completed, but without knowing in detail the function of each gene.
In the same way, we cannot ignore the existence of what is known as the Neanderthal Genome Project. It was unveiled in 2006 and is carried out by the 454 Life Sciences company and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig.
The objective of this initiative is none other than to study in depth the Neanderthal genome in order to establish sequencing, comparison and differentiation with that of modern man, among other things.
Likewise, in Spain there is what is called Fundación Genoma España, whose main mission is to promote the development of biotechnology in the country. For this, it encourages the start-up of consortia that can invest both economically and with human resources in the aforementioned science, launching what are R + D + I projects (Research, Development and Innovation).