Foundry is the melt or melt action and effect (melt and liquefy metals or other bodies solid, shaping molten metal). The concept is also used to name the establishment where metals are melted.
The casting process usually consists of the manufacture of parts from melting a material and introduce it in a mold. There the molten material solidifies and acquires the shape of the mold.
The most common process is sand casting, which consists of placing a molten metal in a sand mold so that, once the metal has solidified, the mold can be broken and the part fused. If the metal is very heavy (such as iron or lead), the mold is covered with a heavy plate.
During the process The following stages are observed in the manufacture of metal parts through sand casting:
* the sand is compacted surrounding the model in its box, for which it is necessary in principle to place all the semi-models on a table, so that they form the model tables, which ensure that the two parts of the mold fit together perfectly. At present it is possible to carry out this step with automatic instruments, such as pneumatic or hydraulic pistons;
* the male is placed. When you want to make a hollow part, you need two taps (also known as hearts) to prevent the metal molten seep through empty spaces. The material used to make the cores is a more resistant sand than that of the mold, since they must be manipulated to be placed in the latter;
* the molten material is poured into the mold using a casting cup or sprue and various feeding channels, which must be eliminated when the piece has solidified. The fumes and gases that are generated throughout the process are eliminated through the permeable zone;
* the material cools and solidifies. This is a decisive phase, since if the cooling time is too short, it is likely that mechanical stresses are generated in the part or that cracks on its surface; on the other hand, if this stage is extended more than adequate, productivity decreases;
* the mold is broken and the piece is removed, at which time it is also necessary to remove the sand from the core, which is recycled and used in the manufacture of other molds;
* during this stage, which is known as deburring, the burrs, the supply lines and the mass of excess metal (mazarota) that remain in the union of the two faces of the mold;
* the piece is finished and the remains of sand that have been stuck are cleaned.
For the metallurgy, the foundry is a iron carbon alloy where its content exceeds 2% and is usually below 7%. Beyond iron and carbon, other alloying elements, such as phosphorus, silicon, or sulfur, may be included.
In the field of electronics, the notion of casting or foundry (in English) indicates a manufacturing unit for integrated circuits (chip). The foundry takes place in a controlled environment to avoid any disruption to the process.
The manufacture of the chips is carried out from semiconductor wafers that must pass various stages (photolithography, recording, doping, diffusion and metallization).
In the field of PrintFinally, the foundry is the set of all the molds of a kind to print.