The geometry is a branch of mathematics dedicated to analysis of the magnitudes and properties of the figures, both in space and on a plane. According to its specific object of study, it is possible to differentiate between different specializations or areas of geometry.
The descriptive geometry, in this framework, is focused on problem solving space geometry through operations carried out in a flat, representing in it the figures of the solid bodies.
To understand the definition of descriptive geometry, therefore, we have to understand what various concepts refer to. The solid geometry is that geometry that study three-dimensional objects: that is, they have three dimensions. The solid they are, precisely, three-dimensional bodies.
Descriptive geometry, in short, enables the representation of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface. In this way it helps to solve questions related to spatial problems, but in two dimensions.
The antecedents of descriptive geometry go back to ancient times. Precisely, there is a large number of drawings that were found in caves belonging to prehistory that show us that need that human beings have always felt to express themselves through drawing to capture representations of their environment. It is important to note that thanks to these creations, today we have a lot of information to try to understand how our ancestors lived, what their needs were and what discoveries they made through observation, for example.
Of course it was only with the arrival of Renaissance that the human being began to develop graphics in depth, that is, to include in his drawings this dimensional axis without which we cannot imagine life. With the consolidation of geometric techniques, the representation of the figures of three-dimensional bodies in a plane was perfected and the foundations were laid for the technical drawing.
Until the use of depth emerged in graphic representations, it was necessary to make drawings that are very faithful to reality, as if they were photographs, since the depth of objects was not taken into account from a geometric point of view. Mathematics provides a series of conceptual tools that facilitate drawing, since they decompose reality into a series of figures very simple, each with its own properties. Something similar happens with musical notation, which allows us to study and memorize melodies through their analysis, something much less demanding on the brain than the mere process of remembering them raw.
Stonework is one of the disciplines that, at the end of the Middle Ages, gave rise to the creation of highly complex three-dimensional works, especially the stones that were used to join the arches or vaults.
Over time, many people specialized in the use of the perspective, and thus the formal bases of the so-called projective geometry, the part of mathematics that focuses on the study of geometric figures without including measurement. It was only in the year 1795 that the mathematician Gaspard monge published a work called “Descriptive geometry”.
The architecture, the topography and the engineering are some of the sciences that appeal to descriptive geometry, which is a useful tool for the development of any type of design.
In other words, descriptive geometry is ideal for any discipline that requires the representation of elements on a surface flat, which in the past used to be a sheet of paper and today, the virtual canvas provided by design software.