Zoonosis is the infection or disease of the animal that is transmissible to the human being under natural conditions or vice versa. The term derives from two Greek words: zoon (“animal”) and us (“disease”).
In a more specific sense, the disease that is transmitted from the animal to the man is the anthropozoonosis, while that which is transmitted from the person the animal is known as zooanthroponosis.
It is usual that, in both cases, they are diseases that affect various vertebrates, including man. Its treatment and prevention requires an interdisciplinary task that encompasses doctors, veterinarians and zoologists.
Specifically, we can determine that there are several perfectly delimited groups of zoonoses:
Viral, among which are Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, rabies …
Fungal Ringworm or histoplasmosis can serve as a clear example.
Prionics. In his case, the most significant is the infection or disease known by the colloquial name of “mad cow disease.”
Bacterial. Under this name are pathologies such as cat scratch disease, tuberculosis, brucellosis or bubonic plague.
There are multiple diseases that are part of the zoonosis. The yellow fever and the dengue, for example, they are transmitted to humans from the action of an insect that acts as a vector for the virus.
The avian flu, also known as avian influenza, is a viral infectious disease that affects birds and can infect humans, pigs and cats, among other species. The Rage (with animal vectors such as dogs, raccoons and bats) and the brucellosis (affecting cows, horses, sheep, and pigs) are also examples of zoonoses.
Vital and fundamental is that they carry out the necessary hygienic-sanitary measures to prevent zoonosis from occurring. In this way, the current regulations established in this regard determine that two actions have to be carried out irremediably:
Prevention, control and eradication programs of the different types of zoonoses in animals.
Surveillance and notification system for possible cases of zoonoses.
More precisely, we can determine that both actions are carried out, for example, by Spain because the European Union imposes it. However, we must not forget either that the aforementioned country has its own microbiological information systems that are exclusively dedicated to investigating zoonosis, its causes, its treatments …
Specifically, those Spanish areas are especially focused on issues such as salmonellosis, tuberculosis or brucellosis. Of course, without forgetting the exhaustive analysis of zoonotic agents, trichinellosis or the cases that have been detected in the country due to one or other circumstances.
The transmission of the disease from animals to humans occurs, in many cases, through the consumption of animal products. The food safetyTherefore, it is very important to avoid zoonosis. In addition to consumer awareness (who must comply with certain habits such as cooking hamburgers well or boiling sausages for at least three minutes to avoid problems), authorities must control compliance with various measures in establishments that produce products for human consumption .