From russian tsar and originating in Latin fall (by Julius Caesar), czar is the title that was awarded to emperor of Russia and to sovereign of Bulgaria and from Serbia. Its feminine form is tsarina. It is important to note that this noble title does not imply an imperial rank, but is the equivalent of the Slavic voice krol (“King”).

CzarIn addition to zarina, other terms linked to zar are tsarévich (the heir to the throne), zesarevna (the tsarévich’s wife) and zarevna (the daughter or granddaughter of the tsar).

The kind of government developed by the tsars was called tsarism. The Tsar was an autocrat and exercised both political and economic power. He also considered himself protector of the Russian Orthodox Church, which implies that it also had religious power.

Ivan IV (or Ivan the Terrible) was the first Russian monarch to adopt the title of Tsar in 1547. From Pedro I (1721), the title of emperor began to be used officially, although the form of tsar remained popular.

One of the most important figures of the Romanov dynasty was he, who ruled his country from the year 1682 to 1725. He has gone down in history as one of the main “culprits” that Russia became a great power through world level and all thanks to a broad and forceful modernization process.

The last Russian czar was Nicholas II, who abdicated in 1917 and ended the Romanov dynasty after the Bolshevik revolution. This tsar embarked on a war with Japan, led Russia on the First World War and contributed to the popularity of Rasputin.

After his abdication, the tsar and his family were also arrested and spent the rest of their days locked up in various places until on July 16, 1918, they were executed by a group of Bolsheviks. These murderers were ahead of the plans that existed on the part of Trotsky who intended to take the tsar to Moscow in order to carry out a public trial.

That multiple murder was only the origin of a multitude of legends and rumors not only about how it occurred but also about whether some of the family members were able to survive it and start a new life under a new identity. And it is that in 1991, after having been discovered a decade ago, a tomb was opened in the Koptiakí forest. In it, after carrying out the analysis of the nine bodies found, it was possible to affirm that the remains of the Tsar and several members of his family were found.

However, the bodies of neither his son Alexis nor the Grand Duchess Anastasia were found in that place. That sparked a lot of rumor but in 2007 it seems that the remains of both were found.

Today, the concept of tsar is used symbolically or metaphorically to refer to people who they have great power in a certain social sector. For instance: “Bill Gates is the czar of operating systems”, “Carlos Slim continues to increase his fortune and strengthen his position as the Mexican telecommunications czar”.