Tracheal breathingThe breathing It is a process that consists of absorbing air to assimilate certain substances and then expelling it after this modification. Tracheal, on the other hand, is that linked to windpipe.

In certain species, such as the human being, the windpipe is the airway sector that runs between the bronchi and the larynx. In the insectsOn the other hand, the trachea is called branching tubes that make up your respiratory system.

The tracheal breathingTherefore, it is the one carried out by insects, arachnids and other living beings making use of these organs. The tracheas give rise to a system composed of these tubes, which enter the fabrics. In this way, oxygen reaches the cells directly and the circulatory system is not involved.

This means that, through tracheal respiration, the air moves without reaching the circulatory fluid known as hemolymph (which fulfills a function analogous to blood in humans and in other vertebrates). Through the tracheas, gases enter the cells without other intermediation.

The tracheae are connected to the outside by spiracles or stigmata, which is the name given to the pores that open and close. In this way, the air enters through the spiracles, passes into the tracheae and circulates through these tubes. Then it comes to the narrow ramifications of the tracheae, known as tracheoles, which enter cells. In the tracheoles, finally, the exchange of carbon dioxide, oxygen and other elements.

Let’s look at the three fundamental elements of system tracheal in detail:

* spiracles: also called stigmata, as mentioned above, are round pores that can have a cavity structured based on thorns or hairs that minimize water loss and block the entry of parasites and dust, or that open directly to the outside. It is important to mention that spiracles have more than one closure system and that in each order of insects they can be distributed differently, although there is usually one pair for each segment from his body;

Tracheal breathing* tracheas: these are hollow tubes that allow the circulation of gases used in respiration. They have a cuticle lining and a spiral of rings that serve as reinforcement and support to prevent eventual collapse. Throughout your entire extensionThey have a gas-permeable fabric and can have air sacs, that is, chambers capable of storing air and expanding, which are very useful during flight;

* tracheoles: It is the third of the components of tracheal respiration and consists of the branching of the tracheas, which are thinned and allow the transport of metabolic gases in both directions with the tissues.

Since tracheal respiration is used by so many different species, there are variations to this system, such as that of certain aquatic insects, which have tracheobranchia, structures gills that have a very thin layer of cuticle on the outside and that give rise to a direct exchange of gases through the integument.

In the case of arachnids, on the other hand, two different systems coexist: tracheal respiration and laminar lungs (also known as lungs in book or philotracheas, are organs that allow the exchange of atmospheric gases and that present a structure with cavities that resemble the pages of a book). The onychophores, which in some books are called velvety wormsThey also have a trachea system, with spiracles that open to the outside, but do not have the possibility of regulating the diameter.