Theocracy is a concept derived from a Greek compound word that can be translated as “Dominion of God”. The notion refers to government that exerts a divinity directly or through some kind of representative.
In theocracy, therefore, the authorities rule in the name of God. In this way, the religious leader is also the political leader. These systems do not contemplate a separation between the State and the religious institution.
A example of theocracy is the Ancient Egypt. The pharaohs They were not only the most important political leaders, but they were also considered as representatives of the divinities and were even priests.
The Tibet was another example of theocracy until 2011. The leader of this region in exile he receives the title of Dalai Lama: it is the maximum religious reference and, even 2011, of the main political authority. In that year, Tenzin Gyatso (the 14th Dalai Lama) made the decision to decline all positions of a political nature.
The VaticanFor its part, it is a theocracy that is still fully operational. The Dad (currently Francisco) is the head of the State and, in addition, the highest authority at the religious level.
It is important to note that theocracies are not democratic: the village it does not elect its representatives. People, on the other hand, cannot stand to represent their compatriots, since the main characteristic of theocracy is that the leaders are only emanations of God, or their representatives on Earth. This peculiarity, in turn, nullifies the possibility of exercising the opposition because, if the leader is God or your representative, no one can replace you.
In today’s Western governments, although there are many peculiarities and contradictions, it is not common for the State to impose the practice of a religion: the rulers must guarantee their citizens the fulfillment of their rights and offer them a constant development of the country, regardless his beliefs.
Regarding the origin of system Theocratic, it is necessary to go back to the oldest tribal societies, in which very frequently there was a shaman who fulfilled both the role of chief of the tribe and spiritual leader, or possessed a power superior to that of the chief. Later, in the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible, which are attributed to Moses) there is talk of a system with similar characteristics.
The theocracy presented in the Pentateuch describes a priestly caste, that is, a community, in this case a tribe, which is strictly dedicated to spiritual practice and service of religion; the kings of Israel, for their part, are a later institution.
With the emergence of the State in the oldest civilizations this particular began to be appreciated. duality of religious and political powers, often united, but over time clearly delimited by laws and buildings (temples and palaces are a clear example of the attempt to “contain” each power in a different environment). In Ancient Greece, there was no well-defined clergy or dogma, which is why the charges Political functions also included functions of a religious nature.
In the Islamic Empire, until 1924 when it was abolished the ottoman caliphate, the figure of the caliph exercised the highest government and, at the same time, represented the hierarchy highest in Islam (he was the “prince of believers”); In any case, it should be clarified that it was not recognized by the entire town, but by the group of Muslims called sunnis, the largest in its community worldwide and characterized by its devotion to the facts and sayings that are attributed to the prophet Muhammad.