The adjective surplus is used to qualify that or that which exceeds: that is surplus or what is out of limits Of something. The term is used in various contexts.
In the field of economy, is called economic surplus to the difference that is registered between the value of the services and goods that a community produces in a certain time and the value of the part of those services and goods that is needed for the survival and reproduction of the inhabitants.
Note that in this case the term is used as noun, and not as an adjective. This changes things considerably, since it goes from being a modifier of another word to the main one of the sentence, although in both cases it offers enough flexibility to refer to a large number of concepts, generally related to economics.
Let’s see some examples of its use as a noun: “The new plant will allow to satisfy the demand of the users and even generate a surplus of Energy“, “The surplus of iron will be destined for export”, “Thanks to the collaboration of all the neighbors, we managed to cover the expenses of the event and there was even a surplus that we will use in the next party”.
It is worth mentioning that this term is usually used as a noun more frequently than as an adjective, at least in everyday speech. Its adjective function can be seen in the following sentences: «Finally, we must withdraw the material edge over with a damp cloth », “It is very important to make sure there is no excess glue left before letting it dry, as once it hardens it is very difficult to remove”.
The history of the economic surplus takes us back to the New Stone Age, also known by the name of Neolithic period, one of those that make up the Stone age, which is situated in the half millennium between 4500 and 4000 BC. C., approximately. Since at that time livestock and agriculture emerged, among other economic activities, inevitably there was a surplus that people used to exchange it for others goods, or for a higher social status.
In the Neolithic, the so-called productive work, that is, the one that can modify the merchandise in terms of its use value or even create the necessary infrastructure to provide services to the clients. Thanks to the wealth resulting from these activities, which can be material or non-material, society is sustained.
The use of the surplus was key to the development and support of the different communities, since each clan specialized in a series of products and it was thanks to the exchange With this surplus they could obtain complementary goods to those of their own manufacture.
There are, however, other kinds of surpluses. The producer surplus is he money that remains once the production expense has been covered. It is, therefore, the gain. The production surplusOn the other hand, it is made up of those products that are left over when consumption and basic needs have already been covered.
It is known as trade surplus to the surplus that is recorded in the balance when the value of exports is higher than the value of imports. If a country imported for $ 2 billion and exported for $ 2.5 billion, it had a trade surplus or surplus of $ 500 million.
The cooperative surplus, finally, it arises when a cooperative you get a positive balance on the difference between income and costs. This surplus can be distributed among the partners through so-called cooperative returns.