The stratification is he act and result of stratifying. This verb (stratify), in turn, refers to ordering in strata.
A stratum, meanwhile, is a set of pieces or elements that make up a larger entity and that are grouped by certain characteristics in common. Strata can be associated with levels or layers.
Returning to the idea of stratification, he alludes to a arrangement in layers. The concept it appears in multiple spheres, acquiring different nuances and specific meanings.
In the field of geology, stratification is linked to how the strata of a terrain are distributed. In this case, the strata must be understood as layers that have a fairly uniform thickness and that overlap.
When analyzing the stratification of a canyon, for example, we find the oldest stratum in the lower part (the base) and the most recent stratum in the upper sector (the the ceiling). Other layers can be detected in the middle.
In the archeology, analyzing stratification is key to determining the antiquity of finds. When excavations are carried out, the extracted earth is carefully arranged: thus, when an object is detected, depending on the stratum in question, it is possible to draw various conclusions.
The social stratification, on the other hand, it is related to the classes that can be recognized inside a society. Through certain criteria, people are categorized in a pyramid that reflects existing inequalities.
Many times the social stratification is carried out according to the income. Thus, the poorest class occupies the bottom level of the pyramid, while the richest class is at the top.