In everyday language, as in physical and in the chemistry, the concept of state is used to describe a situation in which an object or living being is found. In these cases, the word is related to a way of being or staying.
On the other hand, it must be said that State It is a notion with value at the political level that serves to present a form of organization of a sovereign and coercive type with social reach. In this way, the State brings together all the institutions that they have the authority and power to regulate and control the functioning of the community within a specific surface through laws that dictate these institutions and respond to a specific ideology politics.
State and government
It is important to clarify that the concepts of State and government they are not considered synonymous. The rulers They are those who, for a specified time, perform functions in the institutions that are part of the State. In addition, it is necessary to differentiate the term State from the idea of nation, since there are nations without a State and States that bring together different nations.
Before, when the State had not yet been constituted as a concept, the human being tried to mark its limits by force, thus the great conquests were made in order to expand the limits of the territory. Currently, there are more peaceful and democratic means of setting boundaries, although in fact, force is still being used to delineate them.
It should be noted that no person can live without a State since they must comply with the regulations in the territory they inhabit, although this is not necessarily their nation. This does not mean that all individuals who share the same State feel culturally identified with it, but that is not a reason to violate the laws of the space they inhabit.
For a State to be considered as such, it must have certain elements, these are: delimited territory, population, laws, government agencies, internal sovereignty (power to apply its own laws within the territory without the need for other states to interfere) and external sovereignty (Summon its inhabitants when there is an external attack in order to defend their territory).
Some definitions about the State
Many intellectuals have tried to define this concept, here are some theories:
In German words Max weber, the State can be defined as an organization backed by the so-called monopoly of legitimate violence. That is why it is made up of powerful bodies such as the armed forces, the police and the courts, since it is in charge, among other things, of guarantee the functions and obligations of government, defense, security and justice in a specific space. To speak of the rule of law, likewise, is to describe a system in which its organization revolves around the division of powers (that is, the Legislative, Executive and Judicial).
Mendez and Miller They expressed that for a State to exist, two fundamental components must be fulfilled, the territory or control of a given space and society, a politically organized community.
For its part, Ignacio Molina He expressed that the concept of the State is central in political science and designates the form of legal-political organization par excellence. It arises at the same time as the idea of sovereignty and is the static embodiment of it. Ultimately, it is about the formalization of a determined permanent public authority with power over the territory it governs and the individuals who reside in it.
Rejection of the state organization
Today the most widely accepted concept for this meaning of the word is that of Nation state raised by Weber. He says that it is a type of organization where the state has the absolute monopoly of force within the territory as long as its objectives are of integration and homogenization of the population. This State requires elements such as a political organization, a legal system, a delimited territory, a government apparatus and a population that resides within the established limits.
In any case, it is also necessary to clarify that several philosophical currents are opposed to the existence of the State as we know it. The anarchism, for example, it promotes the absolute disappearance of States and their replacement by free entities and organizations with a participatory spirit. The MarxismInstead, it considers the state to be a resource controlled by a ruling class that serves to exercise dominance. Therefore, it advocates its annihilation to achieve its replacement by a workers’ state as part of the transition to socialism and communism, where, having managed to eradicate the class struggle, a state will no longer be needed.