It is called spatialism to one artistic movement that emerged in the mid-1990s 1940 in the Italian territory. Lucio fontana was responsible for promoting this movement that combined postulates of the tachism and from Dadaism, among other groups.
A peculiar depth
The publication of “White manifesto” from Fontana on 1946 it is pointed out as the starting point of spatialism. Said text appeared in the city of Buenos Aires, where at that time this Italian-Argentine painter and sculptor lived. The following year, in Milan, the movement had its formal birth, it received impulse and began to position itself in the artistic panorama of Italy and the rest of the European continent.
One of the main characteristics of spatialism is the use of sharp or pointed elements to rip and tear canvases. In this way, their exponents created a three-dimensional effect on their plays.
With these instruments, and sometimes appealing to the incorporation of various objects to establish reliefs, endowed his paintings with a depth impossible to achieve with Brushes. This physical discontinuity in the paintings is one of the pillars of spatialism.
The key is in the discontinuity
By letting go of what he regarded as aesthetic artifices, Fontana he set out to examine the spatial uses of painting. With his discontinuous canvases, the artist eliminated the distance between the painting and the space that surrounded him, modifying the context.
In short, spatialism oscillates between two great techniques. On the one hand, it resorts to a destructive methodology since it pierces, tears and cuts the canvases; on the other hand, it builds new surfaces by inserting fabrics, wood, nails and other elements. Thus it establishes different spatial effects.
In short, the Italian artist understood that by means of the use of the brush he could not escape from the restriction dimensional character that characterizes this type of art, where the material depth does not exceed a few millimeters if only layers of paint overlap. For this reason, he devised different ways to compose his works in the real plane, without barriers.
As mentioned above, spatialism was inspired by other movements, among which the Dadaism, the tachism and the concrete art. We can say that Dadaism was created with the aim of going against the arts. Its public presentation took place in 1916, in the Cabaret Voltaire from the city of Zurich.
The poet Hugo Ball He was the one who proposed this movement, and in fact the first Dadaist writings are attributed to him. However, its maximum exponent was Tristan tzara, a Romanian writer who participated in the very foundation of Dadaism some time later. One of the fundamental features of this movement is that it opposes the vision that positivism established of the reason. In addition, he rebelled against the conventions of the world of letters and plastic arts, he laughed at the bourgeois artist and his creations.
With respect to tachism, emerged in France in the 1940s and is part of the informalism. It was a response to cubism and among its most characteristic features are the spontaneous brushstrokes, drops and stains of painting that are made from the tube and the illegible strokes that evoke calligraphy. When World War II ended, we usually talk about School of paris was synonymous with tachism.
Finally we have the concrete art, also called concretism. It belongs to abstract painting and its development took place during the 1930s, based on the manifesto written by the Dutch painter and poet Theo van Doesburg. The goal of tachismo was to free oneself from associations symbolic between art and reality, and was based on the fact that colors and lines did not need anything else to be concrete.