It is called socialization or socialization the process through which human beings they learn and they internalize the rules and the values of a determined society and culture specific. East learning allows them to obtain the necessary skills to perform successfully in the social interaction.
Socialization and subjectivity
Starting from this meaning and meaning of the word in question, it is vital that we determine that socialization, however, can be determined from two different points of view. Thus, on the one hand, we could refer to it based on the influence that society exerts on the individual himself. And on the other hand, we could talk about socialization in a much more subjective way.
In this case, when speaking of subjectivity, what we are determining is that the concept we are dealing with can also be seen from the point of view of how the particular individual reacts and acts in response to society itself.
In other words, socialization implies becoming aware of the social fabric that surrounds each one. This learning is made possible by institutional entities and subjects that enjoy social representation, who spread the necessary cultural knowledge. Some of the most important social agents are the schools and the family, although they’re not the only ones.
The role of the family
In this sense, it is necessary to underline that the family carries out socialization in two very different ways. Thus, in the first place we would find what is called repressive or authoritarian, which is based on the authority of the adult, material rewards, physical punishment or unilateral communication.
An example of this type of socialization is carried out by a parent who at no time tries to dialogue with his son, but simply orders and wants him to carry out his orders. If he does not do so, he can carry out some type of punishment in the form of a slap, while if he complies with what the father establishes, he will obtain some type of gift as compensation.
Secondly, we would find, within the family, participatory socialization. This is characterized because it is based on the dialogue between parents and children, because the rewards that the child receives are not material and because the punishments are not physical but symbolic.
Socialization analyzed from psychology
Specialists usually talk about two types of socialization: the primary (when the child begins to acquire cognitive and social skills) and the high school (which is developed in specialized entities and with a certain specificity, such as the school or the armed forces).
The austrian Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, has defined socialization from a perspective of conflict, as the procedure that leads a subject to know how to control certain natural (innate) instincts that are antisocial.
The Swiss psychologist Jean piaget, for its part, is based on the egocentrism as one of the most transcendent aspects of the human condition, which is controlled through the mechanisms of socialization.
Finally, we can mention that Robert A. LeVine has distinguished three fundamental sections in the socialization process: the acculturation, the acquisition of impulse control and the role training.