The French word talus came to Castilian as slope. The term refers to the slope registered by the facing of a Wall or of a surface. The idea of facing, for its part, is linked to the faces of a wall.
For the engineering and the architecture, the slope is the difference between the thickness of the lower sector of the wall and the thickness of the upper sector, creating a pending. This allows the wall to withstand the pressure exerted by the earth behind it.
Analyze the slope stability It is essential for the development of an architectural or civil engineering project. An unevenness and the nature of the materials can threaten this stability.
For to protect a slope, various techniques can be used according to the type of construction site. The covering with stone or concrete and the planting of certain plant species are some of the possible measures.
It should be noted that, for the geology, a slope is a cluster of pieces of rock that forms in the basin of a valley or at the base of a cliff. They generally show a concave, upward-facing appearance.
The continental slopeFinally, it is the underwater natural structure that extends from the so-called continental platform to a depth of about 2000 meters or more. It is a declining area where they accumulate sediments that come from the continents.
The pending of the continental slope is usually located between 5th and the 7th. In any case, continental slopes with more than 50 ° incline.
Broadly speaking, therefore, we can say that for engineering the concept of slope is defined as a surface that is seen to be inclined with respect to one that is considered horizontal, so that it adopts said position temporarily or permanently. In almost all cases, the slope is composed of the same material than the one found on the ground, and this includes reinforced concrete and rock, among others.
It is important to mention that before starting the construction of an architectural project or a civil work, it is essential to study the slope thoroughly. At first glance, with respect to its structure, we can point out that two essential parts can be seen: its foot and its crest, which are the lowest and highest part, respectively.
There are two types of slope that are recognized in the engineering field, although within each one of them many peculiarities and variations can be studied. On one side is the natural slope, which is formed without human intervention, but throughout the evolution same of geology; this one receives the name of hillside. The artificial slopeOn the other hand, it is what man does, and does so for the construction of railroads, highways and other works.
When a slope breaks and causes the ground to move, it is spoken of sliding motion. There are several possible causes for this to occur. phenomena. For example, in soils that form a slope with the help of water, instability is common. This causes them to move downwards, either by an external load or by the action of gravity, and if the resistance force decreases until it is below that which is opposed, a failure occurs.
Among the types of failure that occur most frequently on a slope, we can mention the following: local; by the foot; slip on previous faults; by movement; foundation or foot failure; rotational collapse; by translation; flow (in the uncemented forms); by erosion; slip on the surface; liquefaction.