Reich is a term that is not part of the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE). It is a German concept that can be translated as empire.
Historians often use the notion of reich to refer to regime that adopted the German state in various historical periods. It is possible, in this sense, to distinguish between three reich: the First reich, the Second reich and the Third reich.
The First reich is linked to Holy Roman German Empire that spread between 962 Y 1806. Actually this reich It never corresponded to a nation state as we understand it today, but brought together various European regions.
The Second reich, therefore, it is the first one that corresponds to the Condition German. It was founded in 1871, when William I was proclaimed emperor, and existed until 1918. That year, after the fall in First World War, Germany it became a republic.
The Third reich started on 1933 with the arrival at can of National Socialist Workers Party German (the Nazism). East reich had to Adolf hitler as the main leader, since he became the president and the German chancellor simultaneously.
This third German empire was characterized by the persecution of Jews, Gypsies, blacks and other collectives. From the instrumentation of detention and torture centers and gas chambers, Nazism murdered thousands of people, developing the worst genocide of twentieth century. In addition, due to its military-expansionist policy, the Third reich was annexing various nations to its territory until the Second World War it was his end.
Anti-Semitism is the central concept of the third reich, and it’s about the hostility towards the Jewish people, sustained by a series of prejudices related to culture, race and religion. The official ideology of this reign considered that the Nordic race (the Germanic peoples) was the purest, superior to the rest, which is why was necessary destroy the other ethnic groups.
For people outside the German language, in short, the term reich refers to one of the bloodiest pages in the history of the humanity. As much as we learn about the aforementioned persecutions, it is impossible to feel that helplessness, that despair that so many innocent people felt not so many decades ago to be able to pretend that there is no longer a connection between these events and the present.
Among the most comprehensive sources of information about World War II are documentaries created by Claude lanzmann, a journalist, screenwriter, director and producer born in Bois-Colombes, France, in 1925. From his youth he faced anti-Semitism, and had to experience such regrettable events as the German occupation, before which he organized plans to endurance.
His documentary film «Shoah»Is his most recognized work; It took him more than ten years to complete. It is an unprecedented material, which lasts approximately ten hours and transports the public to several continents, in a journey of a decade that aims to achieve testimonials of some of the participants in the extermination of the Jews that took place during the third reich, more specifically in World War II.
As in his other documentaries, one of the most outstanding characteristics is the apparent absence of editing of the material filmed. Scenes of silence, repetitions, contradictions on the part of the interviewees, landscapes charged with nostalgia for what could not be and tinged with an inevitable suffering are some of the most recurrent elements. Thanks to this very direct and legitimate way of presenting information, Lanzmann allows his audience to experience confessions first-hand and calmly elaborate their opinion, without the typical influence of the media.