A referendum it’s a legal mechanism that allows the population ratify or reject certain resolutions of a government. It is a tool of the direct democracy, in which people make a decision without the need for the intermediation of the representatives.
The usual thing, however, is that the referendum is a mechanism that works within a regime from representative democracy. The issue submitted for consideration will be resolved in favor of the option that garners the most votes.
It should be noted that not all referendums yield results that are mandatory or that they become a resolution that is effectively applied. Some referendums are advisory and then him Legislative power you must make the final decision. When the referendum is defining, it is classified as binding.
An example of a referendum took place in 2004 on Venezuela. On that occasion, the government of Hugo Chavez organized a vote to consult the population if they wanted the president to remain in office or if, on the contrary, his mandate should be revoked. Almost ten million Venezuelans cast their vote and the 58% chose that Chavez stay in the can.
On 2011, the first referendum took place that put to the vote the independence of a nation. At that time, more than 98% of voters chose that South Sudan will become independent of Sudan and become an autonomous country. In this way, the July 9, 2011 the independence of South Sudan.
The recall referendum is also known as revocation of command and it is a political and civil participation procedure that applies only to governors and mayors, leaving out all others officials of popular election, such as councilors, congressmen, deputies and the President himself. In short, it is a political right through which the people have the possibility of ending the mandate of one of the two figures just mentioned.
The foundations of the recall referendum are found in the principle of sovereignty popular, term coined to express a concept opposite to that of national sovereignty, which restricted sovereignty to the nation. It is also correct to say that this referendum reflects the foundations of the participatory democracy, any practice in which the people have a greater participation in the political decisions of their country than the representative democracy would offer.
The mandatory referendum is called the process that begins by getting the parliamentary body to approve submitting an object to the vote popular, and is a feature of the direct democracy in Switzerland. Direct democracy, also called pure, is characterized by allowing citizens to exercise power directly in an assembly whose powers may lead to the approval or repeal of laws and the election of public officials.
Like the compulsory one, the optional referendum is used in Switzerland as a mechanism of direct democracy. When the publication takes place in the Feuille fédérale (the Federal Gazette) of a law new or revised, the part of the people that does not agree with its implementation has a maximum period of one hundred days to collect 50 thousand signatures of citizens of their country, which can then lead to submitting said law to a referendum. Only if the majority decision is favorable can the law come into force.
The need for a collection firms in charge of the people is a basic difference between the optional and the mandatory referendum.