Reasoning is he process and result of reasoning. East verb, for its part, consists of organize and structure ideas to arrive at a conclusion. For instance: “I think your reasoning is incorrect: Mariano should not have done that under any circumstances”, “I don’t understand what your reasoning is”, “My son, on many occasions, surprises me with his reasoning”.
A reasoning, therefore, implies a certain mental activity which results in the development of concepts. These concepts can be used for persuasive purposes or to carry out a certain demonstration.
The reasoning, in short, enables the resolution of problems and the learning through logic, reflection and other tools. According to the mental activity in question, it is possible to differentiate between more than one kind of reasoning.
The logic reasoning consists of starting from a certain judgment to determine if another is valid, possible or false. Since logic is in charge of studying the arguments, it also participates indirectly when it comes to studying reasoning. The normal thing is that the judgments on which a reasoning is supported serve to express previous knowledge or, at least, that they have been exposed as hypotheses.
Within this group, one can speak of the following types of reasoning, among others:
* inductive reasoning: also known as inductive logic and is intended to study the evidence that makes the measurement probability of the rules to generate solid inductive arguments, as well as the measurement of the arguments themselves. It differs from deductive reasoning, described below, in that it does not offer tools to decide whether an argument is valid or not. Therefore, the concept of inductive force, which serves to describe how likely it is that a conclusion is true if its premises are;
* deductive reasoning: within the scope of the logic, this type of reasoning represents an argument in which the conclusion of the premises must be inferred. Formally, it is possible to define deductions as finite sequences of formulas, in which the conclusion (of the deduction) is the last of them, and all are premises, axioms or arise from directly inferring from some of the previous ones through certain rules , called transformation or of inference, which are functions that analyze the syntax of the premises and produce a conclusion;
* abductive reasoning: This is a kind of reasoning that begins when describing a phenomenon or an event and allows to reach a hypothesis that offers an explanation to its possible motives or reasons through the premises that are obtained. According to the English logician, scientist and philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (pictured above), who is considered the founder and father of modern pragmatism and semiotics, we must refer to abductive reasoning using the term conjectures. Guesses are intended to be the most likely or correct explanation at a glance.
The argumentative reasoning, for its part, is associated with the arguments related to the production of the language. An argument, in this sense, expresses in words the result of a reasoning.
We can see how reasoning works in numerous examples. Suppose a man who is sitting on the beach analyzes the possibility of swimming for a while in the sea. While on the sand, watch as a lifeguard (lifeguard) rescues a bather who was being carried away by the current. Five minutes later, a similar scene is repeated. From the shore, the man finally decides not to enter the ocean: his reasoning indicates that it is a dangerous day for swimming.