The psychology is the discipline that investigates mental processes of people and animals. The word comes from the Greek: psycho- (mental or soul activity) and -lodge (study). This discipline analyzes the three dimensions of the aforementioned processes: cognitive, affective and behavioral.
Modern psychology has been in charge of collecting facts about the behaviors and the experiences of living things, organizing them in a systematic way and developing theories for their understanding. These studies allow us to explain their behavior and even in some cases, predict their future actions.
Those people who develop the study of psychology are called psychologists. This means, those who analyze the behavior of living beings from a scientific approach. Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and Jean piaget They are considered to be some of the pioneering psychologists.
The methods of psychology
The study methodology of psychology is divided into two main branches: one that understands this discipline as a basic science (also called experimental) and uses a scientific-quantitative methodology (it contrasts hypotheses with variables that can be quantified in the framework of an experimental environment), and another that seeks to understand the psychological phenomenon through qualitative methodologies that enrich the description and help to understand the processes.
There are many psychological currents, but surely the best known school of psychology is the cognitive, which studies the act of knowledge (the way in which the information received through the senses is understood, organized and used). Thus, cognitive psychology studies functions such as attention, perception, memory and language.
Theory and applications
Psychology can be divided into basic psychology (Its function is to generate new knowledge regarding psychological phenomena) and applied psychology (Its objective is to solve practical problems through the application of the knowledge produced by basic psychology).
On the other hand, it is necessary to clarify that psychology is a science in constant development and given the social and moral conditions, it is transforming based on the maturity of societies over time. At present, psychology is divided into several branches, which are connected as long as they try to respond to the same, the why of the actions and the effects that the experiences may have on a living being or group to condition its existence.
Branches of psychology
The physiological psychology It is the branch of this science that is dedicated to studying the functioning of the brain and the nervous system. The experimental psychologyMeanwhile, it studies perception and memory using specific laboratory techniques that help to discern human behavior in this regard.
Is named Social psychology to the branch that is responsible for analyzing the influences that the social environment marks on an individual, which are studied from the reactions that that individual has to the experiences that happen to him. Industrial psychology It is the part of psychology that studies the work environment of a group of workers and tries to find ways to understand what can be harmful within the activity that takes place, looking for solutions to those problems.
Clinical psychologyOn the other hand, it is called the branch that is responsible for studying and helping those people who have problems to face their life normally, as a result of a mental disorder or a particular condition.
Spirit and subjectivity
In conclusion, psychology can be understood as the science that deals with addressing issues that concern the spirit, the way an individual or a people feels, their moral aspects and the way they deal with the environment.
In other words, it focuses on the study of subjective life and the relationships that are established between the mental and physical aspects of individuals (feelings, ideology, reactions, tendencies, instincts).