In the field of medicine, there is talk of prevention to refer to the actions that are carried out with the objective of avoid or reduce the impact of a disease. According to its characteristics, there are different types of prevention.
The Primary prevention point to prevent the acquisition of disease. This instance, therefore, implies acting before the onset of the disorder.
It can be affirmed that primary prevention seeks to person don’t get sick. With this objective, doctors must develop certain strategies and actions.
Campaigns to promote use of condoms during sexual intercourse constitute an example of primary prevention. If you use a condom, the risk of getting infected sexually transmitted diseases, What AIDS or gonorrhea, is greatly reduced: it is estimated that the effectiveness of these products to prevent infections is around the 98%. Thus, these campaigns help curb epidemics.
Through primary prevention, in short, it is intended to act on the factors of risk or the causal agents. These initiatives are aimed at healthy individuals.
In the very name of this concept we can warn of the moment in which this type of prevention occurs and its importance for the health of the people who are benefit of her: the adjective primary it is defined as “fundamental” or “primordial”, so that it is something that cannot be omitted to fulfill the objective, an element without which there could not be another that complements it. In this case, without this prevention the disease appears, which is why it is an essential barrier to stay healthy.
The causes of diseases, therefore, must be eliminated during primary prevention to minimize the incidence and prevent the population get infected. This period prior to the action of the disease is known as prepatogenic; It is the one that takes place before the stimuli that induce the etiological factors begin to act and cause the disease in question.
In this context we must mention the discipline scientist called epidemiology, which is part of the field of medicine and focuses on the study of the distribution, frequency and factors that determine diseases in each given human population. Through research, scientists aim to identify the determinants and decide how they will intervene to carry out prevention.
To get to the point where an etiologist considers that an intervention will be effective and generalizable, certain studies are needed to verify its effectiveness. effectiveness.
One of the most common types of primary prevention intervention is Health promotion, which consists of promoting the defense of wellness of the population through actions that act directly on it. Some examples are awareness campaigns against tobacco consumption with a special focus on the prevention of lung cancer, among other diseases caused by this substance.
The health protection is another strategy that focuses on the environment instead of people, with activities that promote and protect food hygiene and environmental health, for example.
As we said above, there are other levels of prevention beyond primary prevention. The secondary prevention has the purpose of achieving the early detection of the disease and its immediate approach to make it impossible or difficult to developing.
After primary prevention and secondary prevention, the tertiary prevention, associated with the treatment of evil to achieve rehabilitation of the subject. Finally, the experts also refer to the quaternary prevention, focused on relapses.