The reform process and its outcome are called reform. The verb reform, for its part, is linked to reshaping something or modifying it.
A political reform, therefore, it is a change in organizational structure of a country or a region. Let us remember that the politics it is associated with the exercise of power and decision-making in pursuit of certain objectives.
What a political reform does is alter the characteristics of a certain regime or organization. It is not a revolution: that is, the current order is not replaced by a different one. The purpose of political reform is to correct or improve certain mechanisms of the governmental sphere or public administration.
All the innovations of political reform occur within the framework of the already established social system and without contradicting what is established by the institutions. The groups that hold the can They tend to accept political reform to prevent social pressure from leading to a revolution or violent revolt that causes them to lose their privileged position.
In other words, there are sectors that prefer to accept or promote political reform and give up some power than to strictly defend their position and risk losing everything to a violent and unpredictable process.
When it comes to carrying out a political reform, each country establishes a series of guidelines and principles regarding majorities and processes that must be strictly adhered to. However, it is vital that in any of the actions of this type that you wish to undertake several elements are taken into account, such as these:
-The first thing is that the parties that shape the government debate about it and establish that it is time to carry it out.
-In the same way, it is vital that the support that will be needed and the approval system that will be undertaken is clear.
– Likewise, a defined, clear and exhaustive project must be established that sets out the reform that is going to be carried out, what law is going to affect, what objectives are intended to be achieved by carrying it out and why it is necessary to proceed to undertake it.
The measures that are developed within the framework of a political reform respect the essence of the institutions and they do not cause a breakdown of the established order. It should be noted, however, that its effects they can be important and generate a relevant change in political life.
In Spain, for example, in 1976, after a pertinent referendum, the approval of what was called the Law for Political Reform was carried out (Law 1/1977, of January 4). This, which achieved just over 94% of the votes in favor, was the last of the fundamental laws of the Franco regime. If it has stood out especially in history, it is because it was the one that allowed the first steps to be taken in favor of the Transition, the period that managed to leave behind a dictatorship and initiate a democratic stage in favor of all citizens.