The fabric warp that deals with the capture and processing of signals so that the organism can interact effectively with the environment is called nervous system. This system records internal and external stimuli (sensitive function), parses them and sends a response (integrating function), promoting a muscular movement, a secretion of a gland, etc. (motor function).
The nervous system can, according to the area studied, be divided into Central Nervous System (part reserved for the brain and spinal cord) and in peripheral nervous system (where the cranial and spinal nerves are appreciated).
The peripheral nervous system (also referred to as SNP), therefore, it is constituted by the nerves and neurons that transcend the central nervous system and thus reach the organs and limbs of the body. Unlike the CNS, the SNP does not have the protection of bone structures.
It is important to underline the fact that there is a wide series of nerves, which means that they can be classified based on the type of impulses that they are responsible for transporting as a criterion for doing so. That means that we establish the following classification:
Somatic sensitive nerve. It is the one in charge of collecting the sensitive impulses that do not refer to what is the activity of the various viscera.
Visceral sensitive nerve. As its name indicates, it is the one whose mission is to collect the sensitivity of the aforementioned viscera.
Somatic motor nerve. In this case, it has the task of proceeding to transport the motor impulses to the voluntary muscles.
Visceral elector nerve. Its mission is to transport the motor or secretory impulses, among others, to the viscera.
And all this without forgetting that there are also those known as pure nerves that are characterized because they have the capacity to carry out the four functions mentioned above.
The function of the SNP is to integrate, regulate and coordinate the organs of the body through unconscious responses. It can be segmented into somatic nervous system (which is responsible for activating organic functions) and autonomic or vegetative nervous system (transmits nerve impulses between the CNS and the rest of the body and regulates energy expenditure).
This last mentioned system is basically composed of two types of systems for its part. Thus, on the one hand we find what is known as the sympathetic nervous system and on the other, there is the parasympathetic nervous system.
In the same way, it is necessary to underline the fundamental role that the autonomic ganglia, the sensory pathways, the sensory pathways and the motor pathways acquire so much. These are defined as those that start from the central nervous system thanks to or through efferent neurons.
The nerves that make up the PNS, in short, allow communication between the CNS and the internal or external environment. According to the type of fibers, one can speak of motor nerves, sensory nerves and mixed nerves. Regarding the area of the CNS from which they come, on the other hand, nerves can be distinguished between cranial nerves (attached to the brain) and spinal nerves (attached to the medulla).