The parliament is the assembly or legislative chamber, either provincial or national. Written with a capital letter, the Parliament is the place or the edifice where this institution has its headquarters.
The state with parliamentary system have their constitutional body in the parliament, which is made up of representatives that they are elected by the people through elections, and that they have the mission of expressing the popular will through the elaboration of legal norms and integration between the various State institutions.
It can be said, therefore, that the function of parliament resembles that of congress, although this is typical of the presidential system and exhibits a more defined separation between the Legislative power and the Executive power.
The origin of the concept of parliament is found in French parlement which, in turn, derives from parler (“talk”). That is why the notion of parliament also uses to name the speech wave chat. For instance: “The singer’s speech was interrupted by the shouts of the public”, “The lawyer vanished in the middle of the parliament that he maintained with his peers”, “The leader gave a moving parliament to the thousands of attendees”.
As an institution, therefore, the parliament is linked to the meetings that the representatives of the nobility, the clergy and the cities held in ancient times. These parliaments were convened by the King to deal with the imposition of Rights and liens.
The legislative assemblies of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and Ireland are some of which, today, are known as parliaments.
The systems Democrats recognize four fundamental guarantees for parliament:
* inviolability: This is absolute immunity, which means that you cannot be attacked or raided by legal means. In other words, there is no authority or person who can interfere in their actions. Likewise, the immunity of campus, which prevents unauthorized entry to the building in which this constitutional body is located;
* regulatory autonomy: they can define their own rules to govern their operation, both at a general and individual level;
* functional autonomy: only the Presidents and officials of a parliament can exercise the administration of its resources and its norms;
* budgetary autonomy: Parliament is free to approve its budgets, for which it can use public funds.
In all democratic states, despite the differences that they may present among themselves, parliaments share a series of general features, which are appreciated in their nature as well as in their functions.
With regard to the nature of parliament, it is possible to point out two features constant in all cases:
* Its members are elected through the suffrage free, universal, secret and direct of all its members. In the cases in which the parliament is made up of two or more Chambers, at least one of them must cast the votes, and it is usually called the Lower Chamber and is elected based on the principle of proportional multinominal scrutiny (the percentage of votes received affects the number of seats assigned to them);
* They are fully autonomous in that they are in charge of their own regulation, and they resolve on their own budget and management issues. organization hierarchical of its members.
On the other hand, the following four characteristics of parliaments also coincide from the point of view of their functions:
* prepare and approve the Laws;
* they elect the members of the Executive Power, or they carry out a control of their actions;
* They are in charge of guiding public policy and the decisions made by the State;
* they make up other constitutional bodies.