The orthoepy is the area of the phonetics dedicated to establishment of pronunciation rules for a language. The notion comes from the Greek word orthology.
Before moving on, it should be mentioned that the idea of phonetics is linked to speech sounds. It may be the set of sounds of a language or of the one-to-one relationship that is established between those sounds and their written representation. Phonetics is also called the sector of grammar focused on the generation, expression and perception of the constitutive sound signals of speech.
Returning to the concept of orthology, it refers to the norms that indicate how sounds should be pronounced decade language. Pronouncing, meanwhile, consists of the articulation and emission of sounds when speaking.
Orthology, therefore, pays attention to the tongue as a tool for communication. It also considers the cognitive activity of the speaker and the aesthetic question that develops according to the way of speaking.
Mentioned as a didactics of the pronunciation, orthology goes beyond sound production to focus on how sounds are expressed and understood as a whole. It is important to note that the material form of speech (i.e. pronunciation) can contribute to the communicative success or become a barrier that threatens the understanding.
Orthology, in short, is relevant both to optimize learning and the use of mother tongue like one foreign language. Whoever pronounces properly manages to better convey their ideas.
Language scholars compare orthology with orthography, while the first is to speech and the second, to writing. These are two sets of rules that we learn “naturally” for our first language and consciously for others. Without them, we would not be able to communicate effectively or clearly.
Although the total absence of the principles established by orthology is not possible in a person who is born into a society, the lack of attention to rules at high levels it is very common, especially among adolescents. As with spelling, there is a kind of rebellion that leads many to violate the rules of correction for fear of appearing too submissive or not modern.
In the case of orthology, the deformation u omission of certain phonemes can lead to a series of misunderstandings of varying severity, which mess up conversations and lead the interlocutor to feel lost or offended, among other possibilities. This may seem trivial during school age, but as responsibilities increase the consequences may be failing an exam or failing a job interview.
Although orthology gives us a guide to speak well, it is true that there are exceptions, those special cases that destroy the rules in front of our eyes and leave us unprotected unless we have learned them from memory. Such is the case of the pronunciation of the R after a N, which should sound strong, despite being simple and not at the beginning of the word.
Another point to keep in mind is the pronunciation of the B and the V: in the field of writing we cannot interchange them, but from a phonetic point of view it would be a error pronounce them differently; would be a orthological error. Some orthological faults are accepted in everyday speech because they are part of the regional culture; for example: skip the D in words like tired (“Tired”) or Eaten (“Ate”), the first letters in until (“Ta”), and so on.