The ophthalmology is the Medical speciality which is responsible for the treatment of diseases of the eyes. This discipline also has application in vet since humans and animals usually share, in this case, similar pathological processes.
Ophthalmology specialists are known as ophthalmologists or oculists. His work includes the diagnosis of diseases, disorders and ailments through various tests.
Some eye diseases require the application of a pharmacological treatment. This is the case of allergic, infectious and inflammatory processes. Other diseases, such as waterfall (the total or partial opacification of the lens), the myopia (the refractive state of the eye where the focal point forms anterior to the retina) or the glaucoma (a degenerative neuropathy of the optic nerve fibers due to elevated Pressure intraocular), may require surgical interventions.
It should be noted that the examination of the eye to determine the use of glasses or contact lenses and their corresponding graduation is the responsibility of the optometrists. The optometry is the science dedicated to the assistance of visual health and the prevention, compensation and treatment of visual anomalies.
By measuring the refractive state of the eyes, optometrists are in a position to detect and correct the astigmatism, the squint and other anomalies. If the optometrist detects any disease or pathology related to the system visual, should refer the patient to the ophthalmologist.
The campimetry or perimetryFinally, it consists of the psychometric exploration of the visual field and allows to determine the luminous universe that an eye can encompass while it remains immobile.
The history of ophthalmology is relatively extensive, since it can transport us to the first centuries of the first millennium. For example, at the end of the third century the surgeon Sushruta, a native of India, wrote his work entitled Súsruta-samjita, which is made up of 184 chapters throughout which it describes more than a thousand diseases and dozens of medicines of various origins for their treatment. Much of this data represented real breakthroughs for various fields of medicine, including ophthalmology.
Of the hundreds of diseases he described in his book, Sushruta included seventy-seven that affect the eyes, of which fifty-one require treatment surgical, including cataract. As a complement to this information, he listed instruments used for operations and recommended ophthalmology techniques that were very useful in his time.
Medicine before Hippocrates of Cos, the ancient Greek who is considered one of the fathers of medicine, used to rely more on speculation than on irrefutable scientific evidence. Some of the concepts they discussed at that time were the cornea and sclera, two of the ocular layers that they recognized in a similar way to today, as well as the pupil and a liquid located in the middle of the eye that they considered the source of our sense of sight. Aristotle discovered a third layer after dissecting several animal eyes.
The arrival of the microscope was the door to a great number of advances in the field of ophthalmology, since it allowed to study the eye with an unprecedented level of detail. This took place between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, although some concepts were not consistent with current ones but took more decades to define themselves “correctly”. For example, it was not until 1834 that the cap of the cells thanks to which we can see, the cones and the rods.
Although eye surgery is relatively old, it is believed that it was not until the first half of the 18th century that the first operations in the field of ophthalmology proper, and one of the pioneers was John freke.