The oligarchy is, for political science, the form of government in which power is exercised by a small group of people that belong to a same social class. By extension, the term is used to name the set of businessmen and wealthy individuals who usually act together to defend their interests.
The concept was born in the Ancient Greece to refer to the degeneration of the aristocracy. When the aristocratic system began to be perpetuated by blood descent and the leadership of the Condition it ceased to be in the hands of the brightest minds, it began to speak of oligarchy.
Currently, the term oligarch is often used to refer to the millionaires, landowners and property owners. The oligarchy, in this sense, is a kind of social status that has political implications (for example, through pressure economical to achieve greater benefits and advantages) and cultural (a certain clothing, shared tastes, etc.).
The oligarchy does not conceive of social mobility. The nouveau riche are unable to enter the oligarchic circles, which defend a lineage similar to that of the nobility. When an oligarch suffers financial problems, on the other hand, he tries to support his lifestyle in any way or, at least, to appear to support it.
The stereotype of the oligarch is that of a subject without ethics or morals, willing to incur corruption and corruption. violence to sustain his power, which he considers an acquired right. Left-wing political parties tend to have the oligarchy as their main enemy.
Broadly speaking, it is correct to say that the oligarchy is a concept opposed to democracy, since it is about concentrating the can in a small group of people, instead of giving everyone the opportunity to comment and decide. In countries that have suffered periods of strong repression, the term oligarch it is often used as an insult to a particular force, charged with the frustration and resentment of a people who have been deprived of their freedoms.
The corporate oligarchy It is a form of power, which can be of an operational or governmental type, in which a small group of people, sometimes from educational institutions or influential economic entities such as banks, act according to the beginning of the oligarchy, often bypassing the official decisions of a country. A clear example of today are true Business multinationals, influencing the movements of democratically elected rulers.
Brief historical review
The history of the governments oligarchic in nature, it dates from the first social organizations of the human being as a species. Throughout the centuries, certain patterns associated with the birth of a system of this type have been repeated, such as the commercial relations between several nations and the economic progress of a very limited sector of the population.
Topic Writings politicians bequeathed by the ancient Greeks, as it is part of Plato’s work, speak of these oligarchic government systems, one of the most cited examples being the Thirty tyrants, which ruled the Athenian people. In the case of Athens, the oligarchy was overthrown to regain the democratic structure that they had enjoyed until then.
It is interesting to note that the oligarchy can be seen at different times in history, but also in civilizations very diverse, ranging from ancient Europeans to certain tribes of Africa, where power is appointed in a council of elderly men who, theoretically, have enough wisdom to make the most important decisions, those that will guide their people on the path of progress.