Rule it is a concept that has different meanings. In this case, we are interested in highlighting its meaning as a precept or regulation. Octet, for its part, is something that is made up of eight components.
The octet rule or octet rule is a postulate that is used in the context of the chemistry. It is the tendency that atoms show to complete their energy level with eight electrons to reach stability.
Origin of the octet rule
The American Scientist Gilbert Newton Lewis was who, in 1917, postulated the octet rule. Lewis noted that, by combining with each other, the atoms try to achieve the structural configuration that the Noble gas located closer to the periodic table Of elements.
Looking at this table, it can be seen that noble gases have eight electrons in their last shell. The deduction led Lewis to assert that this configuration is the most stable for any class of atom.
The importance of Newton Lewis
A reference within the scientific field, specifically chemistry, is Gilbert Newton Lewis, who has also gone down in history for other works and discoveries. Specifically, in his career it stands out that he formulated the model of the cubic atom, that he deduced the same relationship between mass and energy as Albert Einstein but that he reached that by another way or that he carried out the theory of the electronic pair, referring to what acid – base reactions.
All this without ignoring that this North American biochemist was in charge of coining the term photon in 1926, to refer to what is the smallest unit of radiant energy.
Byte rule features
The octet rule, in short, indicates that two equal atoms, when they bond, develop a specific organization so that, when the bond is formed by the sharing of pairs of electrons, each atom acquires the structure of a noble gas. Thus, both atoms will be surrounded by eight electrons in its last energetic layer.
As in any rule, the octet rule also has exceptions. The oxygen, the nitrogen and the carbon They are compounds that do not comply with the aforementioned rule since they are organized in a different way. In this way, as links are formed, the trend of the octet rule is not recorded.
It should not be overlooked that three other elements are likewise considered to be exceptions to the octet rule:
-Aluminum (Al). Specifically, it is established that this achieves the aforementioned stability with the existence of six electrons in what is the so-called valence shell.
-Beryllium (Be). This other element is also established as a clear exception to the rule and theory imposed by Newton Lewis. In its specific case it is because its stabilization is found in four electrons, since it has the ability to form compounds only with what are two simple bonds.
-The boron (B). Why break the rule? Basically because it forms substances with what are three simple bonds, hence it does not have to reach the eight set by the aforementioned maximum.