That which alters a flat surface through a depression or elevation is called relief. In this sense, the different forms that can be seen on Earth at the surface and underwater level are known as Land relief.
The notion of ocean relief, ocean floor or underwater relief refers specifically to the forms and accidents found in the background of the oceans. These structures were created from the mobilization of different classes of sediments and the displacement of tectonic plates.
It is possible to distinguish between different layers and areas of the oceanic relief, which begins when the coastline ends. The region closest to the coast is known as Continental platform, since it is a submerged part of the continent. It extends from the beach to about 200 meters deep. After the continental shelf, the oceanic relief continues with the area known as continental slope, which reaches up to 4,000 meters deep.
In the oceanic relief it is also possible to recognize the abyssal plains (gentle slopes or plains located between the 2,000 and the 5,500 meters below sea level), ocean trenches (very deep depressions; the deepest is the Mariana Trench, which exceeds 11,000 meters depth) and ocean ridges (mountains that emerge from the ocean floor and can protrude from the sea like islands).
Specifically, we can determine that
In addition to all the above, it should not be overlooked that among the oceanic trenches, in addition to that of the Marianas, there are other equally significant and important such as these:
-The Emden Chasm, which is located in the Philippines and has 10,973 meters.
-The Rampao abyss, which has 10,660 meters and is located exactly in the oceanic archipelago of Bonín.
-The abyss of Nero, nestled in the Mariana Islands and identified by its 9,636 meters.
-The Japan Trench, which reaches 9,435 meters.
-The Aldrich Chasm, which is 9,427 meters high and located in the Kermadek Islands.
In the same way, we must refer to the Tonga Trench (9,184 meters) and the Planet abyss (9,148 meters) that is located in the well-known Solomon Islands.
Of course, it is necessary to emphasize other aspects mentioned about the oceanic relief that concerns us and its layers or forms:
-The natural regions, therefore, are the following: continental shelf (0 – 200 meters), bathyal region (200 – 1,000 meters), abyssal region (1,000 – 5,000 meters), marine trenches (5,000 – 11,000 meters) and finally the ocean ridges, which can be up to 3,000 meters high and 1,000 kilometers wide.
-The abyssal region also responds to the name of pelagic zone.
-In the ocean ridges it is considered that there is a great volcanic and seismic activity.
-The most predominant trenches are in the Pacific Ocean.
It is important to note that the deepest areas of the oceanic relief have not been explored by the men. It is presumed that different aquatic organisms coexist in these depths.