The etymological origin of the word nationalism that we are now going to analyze, we have to say that it is found in Latin. Specifically, it is made up of two different parts such as nasci which means “to be born” and the suffix –ism which is equivalent to “system, theory, doctrine or trend.”
According to the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), the term nationalism it has three different meanings. On the one hand, it is defined as the affection and sense of belonging of the natives of a certain nation about her. To give some examples: “In many countries, nationalism is only seen after a sporting success”, “Wars are tragedies that serve to awaken the sleeping nationalism of the population”.
Nationalism, on the other hand, is defined as that ideology or line of thought that attributes a distinctive and unique character or value to a specific territory and to the citizens who inhabit it. This tendency of thought usually develops in opposition to other regions: “The most extreme Basque nationalism hit Spanish society again”, “I aspire to live in a democratic state, where all nationalisms are heard”.
The aspiration of a town To obtain a certain level of independence from external conditions is also defined as nationalism: “I want a political program that defends nationalism and maintains state ownership of our most important companies.”.
In this sense, we can state that at this time in Spain what is called Catalan nationalism is being experienced with intensity because there has been a demonstration where a part of the population of this autonomous community has taken to the streets as a sign that they want to the independence of that country.
In addition to all this, we can state that there are various types of nationalism among which stands out, for example, the so-called integrative nationalism, which is one that is based on the intention that populations from different states but who share many characteristics are unified.
In total contrast to the previous one is the disintegrating nationalism that is defined because it is strongly committed to the secession of a part of a State since it is considered that the population of that one has signs of identity that differ from those of the rest of the aforementioned country.
These are the two most important classes of nationalism, however, we cannot forget that there are others that take as their central axis various aspects of society to establish themselves and consider themselves. Thus, we find, for example, economic, cultural or ethnic nationalism that would be the one carried out by Hitler, and religious.
It should also be noted that multiple political movements can be sustained by nationalism. The fascist regime of Benito Mussolini and the nazism of Adolf hitler They proclaimed themselves nationalists and, under that banner, attacked other countries. These historical cases also show that the concept of nationalism changes with history: Hitler associated his idea of Germany to the Aryan race and excluded from the nation other social groups born in German territory. This means that, for the nationalism of Hitler, a Jew born in Berlin he did not belong to the German nation. For other people, on the other hand, nationalism is closely associated with the place of birth.