It is called multicausality to the beginning holding that a phenomenon always has multiple causes. The idea of cause, meanwhile, refers to origin or motive of something.
Multicausality indicates that events have different fundamentals. There is no single cause that produces effect in question, but that consequence is reached by the action of various factors.
It is generally accepted that these causes lie ordered, is it so linked and they interact with each other. The notion of multicausality appears both in the field of social Sciences as in the field of natural Sciences.
A economic crisis, for example, it can be explained from multicausality. Suppose that a country goes through a period of contraction of its economy related to the drop in the international price of the products it exports. That price collapse, in turn, is associated with a change in tax tariffs that a world power ordered. As can be seen, the crisis has more than one cause.
The unsafety it is also a phenomenon traversed by multi-causality. Lack of job opportunities; educational problems; the growth of the sale and consumption of drugs; and the scarcity of resources for the security forces are some of the reasons that may explain the increase in crime.
Multicausality, on the other hand, is used when referring to what leads to depression. In this syndrome characterized by sadness and dejection, genetic and biological issues are combined with psychosocial elements.
When we think of the concept of cause, we usually use a unitary view: one thing leads to another. Although it may be an action, a phenomenon natural or accidental, it is common for us to think that at each end there is only one element. One of the simplest situations is a burn from touching the fire: there is an action that leads to an injury, and this seems enough to us to avoid misfortune.
However, in certain areas of science, and even in the example of the burn, it is not enough to analyze the most obvious cause, and it is then that the need arises to address the problems thinking about multi-causality. In fact, we should not separate both concepts, since they are two versions of the same, and in both cases they give us a vision that opposes superstition and ancient beliefs that things happened because the gods decided to do so. Both diseases and successful harvests can now be explained by complex networks of interrelated events, but in the past they were accepted as part of the plan divine.
The year 2020 was characterized by the spread of COVID-19, a viral disease that caused many deaths around the world and altered social organization in an unexpected way. At first glance, we can say that its causality in an individual is that he contracts the disease, that is, that he is exposed to the virus known as coronavirus (the SARS-CoV2); However, if we think at the population level, we must combine many more causes to explain the spread, the increase in certain regions or age ranges, etc., and that is why we must speak of multi-causality.
For example, the spread in a given group could be explained by the number of confirmed cases, if it were too high. In another, however, it could be linked to the lack of responsibility of those who refuse to comply with prevention measures, which in this case included the use of a mask and social distancing. Exposure to certain sources of contamination could be another cause. All of them, and many others, must be included in the multicausality of this disease.