Moral is a word of Latin origin, which comes from the term you die (“custom”). It’s about a set of beliefs, customs, values and norms of a person or a social group, which functions as a guide to act. That is, morality guides about what Actions are correct (good) and what are wrong (bad).
According to another definition, morality is the sum total of the knowledge that is acquired about what is highest and noble, and that a person respects in their conduct. Beliefs about morality are generalized and encoded in a certain culture or in a particular social group, so the moral regulates behavior of its members. On the other hand, morality is usually identified with religious and ethical principles that a community agrees to respect.
The set of moral norms is called as objective morality (they exist as social facts beyond the subject decide to abide by them). Instead, the acts through which the person respects or violates the moral norm make up the subjective morality.
It is worth mentioning that the idea of moral responsibility appears with the conviction that the actions of the individual are always carried out with a end, unless you are unconscious (due to a mental illness, a psychological imbalance, the effects of a drug, etc.). It is said that a person who makes use of the values morals of their society can forge a better destiny.
The term moral can also be used as a synonym for ethics, so it makes sense as philosophical discipline or as a synonym for moral theology (a theological discipline).
Morality as a tool for evolution
In the scientific field, the idea that morality arose as a consequence of natural selection is very widespread, precisely because it allowed to discard all that behaviour that threatens our evolution throughout history. In fact, this can be seen in any animal society, beyond our own: it is common for living beings to instinctively join certain implicit rules, which no one has written.
For example: any animal, including us, should tend to protect its family, its closest beings, to protect itself from predators; Even before the creation of a law against domestic violence, we surely understood that it was not good for our survival injure or kill members of our group.
It is, therefore, a constructive way of organizing ourselves as species, to prioritize the safety and well-being of our communities above all else. Scientists say that the complexity of morality grew along with the development of our intellect, until it was reflected in legislative systems. In history there are several examples of the prevalence of an explicit system of laws based on morality over an implicit and archaic one, closer to anarchy and the internal competition of the members of the same group.
The American Biologist Edward osborne wilson, born in 1929 and a doctorate in Biology from Harvard University, expanded the idea of morality in his study of the sociobiology, which focuses on history of our societies based on behavioral characteristics such as the creation of systems, territoriality, aggression, cooperation and the search for a partner to reproduce.
Wilson points out that the system of values that humans have adopted over the millennia (which includes all related beliefs, norms, and virtues) exist precisely because they are useful for continuing to evolve. This may seem cold to many scholars, but deep down it reflects a need to subsist practical and away from the spiritual.