Mitosis, which derives from a Greek term meaning “to knit”, is the segmentation of a cell which takes place after the genetic material has been duplicated, allowing each of the cells generated to have all of the chromosomes.
It is, therefore, the action that distributes the hereditary information found in the DNA fairly. The mitosis process generates cells that are genetically identical. The meiosis (another process of cell division), instead, produces cells that are genetically distinct.
Mitosis is, in short, a procedure in which cells are multiply and that has a great impact on the growth, development and regeneration capacity of the organism. The conformation of two new cores is known as karyokinesis, while the division of the cytoplasm is called cytokinesis.
When it comes to talking about mitosis, it is important, in addition to all that has been underlined, that we know that this process is divided into four clearly differentiated stages or phases, the first of which is called prophase. In this, the chromosomes can already be seen under the microscope and stand out because they are made up of bars, called chromatids, which are held together.
The second stage is the so-called metaphase and in it what occurs is that the aforementioned pairs of chromatids move towards what is the center of the cell itself. Next, the third step takes place, which is called anaphase, which we can determine is the most important stage of mitosis because it is thanks to it that the division and subsequent transport and distribution of the two copies takes place. than the original genetic information was.
Finally the fourth and last phase is the so-called telophase. In this case, we can establish that it is the moment in which the processes of previous stages are reversed, resulting in the obtaining of two daughter cells that are characterized by having the same cytoplasm and also chromosomes.
It is also important to underline that when mitosis occurs in organisms that are multicellular, it not only gives rise to new individuals but also to the restitution of dead cells, the regeneration of what were damaged tissues and the healing of wounds.
Mitosis can also occur in a different way, not including cell division. The process, which is called endomitosis or endoreduplication, produces cells with copies of the chromosome in question in the same nucleus. The cells generated by endomitosis are called endoploids.
It should be noted that mistakes in mitosis, although they are rare. They generally take place in the first cell segmentations in the zygote and affect the descendants of the stem cell that has the defects.
A chromosome that does not separate at the stage known as anaphase and chromosome damage caused by changes in the structure of the cell that the process generates are other problems that can arise during mitosis. There are times when the error can be detected and corrected in time.