Methodology is a word generated from three words of Greek origin:goal (“beyond”), odòs (“path”) and logos (“study”). The concept refers to research plan that allows to meet certain objectives within the framework of a science.
It should be noted that the methodology can also be applied in the artistic field, when rigorous observation is carried out. Therefore, the methodology can be understood as the set of procedures that determine a scientific investigation or set the course for a doctrinal exposition.
Methodology in social sciences
In the field of social sciences, the resource of methodology focuses on the reality of a society to arrive at a certain and forceful conclusion about an episode using the observation and practical work typical of all science.
The distinction between the method (name given to each plan selected to achieve an objective) and the methodology (branch that studies the method). The methodologist is not dedicated to analyzing or verifying knowledge already obtained and accepted by science: his task is to track and adopt valid strategies to increase said knowledge.
Key piece of an investigation
The methodology is an essential piece of all research (scientific method) that follows the propaedeutic since it allows to systematize the procedures and techniques that are required to specify the challenge. It should be clarified that the propaedeutic gives name to the accumulation of knowledge and disciplines that are necessary for address and understand any subject. The term comes from the Greek pro (“before”) and paideutikós (“Concerning teaching”)
In other words, the methodology is a concrete resource that derives from a theoretical and epistemological position, for the selection of specific investigation techniques. The methodology, then, depends on the postulates that the researcher believes are valid, since the methodological action will be his tool to analyze the reality studied. The methodology to be efficient must be disciplined and systematic and allow an approach that allows to analyze a problem in its entirety.
Different types of methodology
Within a research, many methodologies can be developed, but all of them can be pigeonholed into two large groups, the research methodology qualitative and quantitative. The first is the one that allows access to information through the collection of data on variables, reaching certain conclusions when comparing statistics; the second, makes narrative records on the phenomena investigated, leaving aside the quantification of data and obtaining them through interviews or non-numerical techniques, studying the relationship between the variables that were obtained from the observation, taking into account above all the contexts and situations that revolve around the problem studied.
On the other hand, the methodology can also be comparative (analyzes), descriptive (exposes) or normative (evaluates). To know whether to use one type of methodology or another, the scientist or researcher has to take into account a set of important aspects. Some of the questions to ask yourself are: what results do you hope to achieve? Who are interested in knowing the results? What is the nature of the project?
Link with theory and difference with method
It is essential that the method used and the theory, which offers the framework where the knowledge is inserted, are united by coherence (the how and what must be coherent with each other); This means that the methodology must be used within a ideological framework, a system of coherent ideas that are in charge of explaining the why of the investigation.
As we have already explained, method and methodology are different things. The term method, also known as research techniques, can be defined as the way to reach an end; In relation to the methodology, it consists of the procedures that must be carried out to comply with its provisions and obtain true conclusions about the phenomenon or problem being analyzed. In other words, while the methodology is what unites the subject to the object of knowledge and is essential to achieve scientific knowledge, the method is the path or instrument that leads us to it.
The case of sports training methodology
The sports training methodology It consists of the rules that must be complied with within the organization in the practice of a sport. There are two types of methodologies in this field: multidisciplinary and integrated.
The multidisciplinary methodology It is the one that considers that the best sports performance can be obtained from the sum of the different elements involved such as technique, tactics, and physical, psychological and visual aspects. The ends are achieved through clear and safe exercises.
The integrated methodology It is based on sports practice, and considers that technical-tactical, physical, psychological and visual skills are closely linked. In this methodology, integration and combination between all the elements is sought, but greater attention is paid to technique and tactics.