The science which is based on the laws, modalities and forms of scientific knowledge is known under the name of logic. It is a science of a formal nature that lacks content since it focuses on the study of valid inference alternatives. That is, it proposes to study the methods and the appropriate principles to identify the correct reasoning versus the wrong one.
The etymology allows us to know that the term ‘logic’ has its origin in the Latin word logic, which in turn derives from the Greek logikós (from logos, “reason” or “study”). The greek philosopher AristotleAccording to historical experts, he was a pioneer in using the notion to name the checking of arguments as indicators of truth within science, and in presenting the syllogism as a valid argument.
Historical development of logic
However, we cannot ignore that throughout history there are many other figures who have contributed their ideas and approaches to developing this science. Thus, for example, during the Middle Ages it is necessary to underline the role played by Averroes, the Cordovan philosopher who, among other things, stated that it was essential to study the logic of the ancient masters and, from there, proceed to ” philosophize ”the right way.
Already in the 18th and 19th centuries, one of the characters who most tackled the subject of logic was Immanuel Kant. He is considered one of the most important and influential thinkers in history and stands out for the fact that in this matter at hand he established a new concept: transcendental logic.
A term that with which said philosopher of Prussian origin tried to define the process by which the human being must carry out an investigation of what would become the pure concepts of categories of a transcendental type or also of what is the exact understanding .
Hegel, Augustus De Morgan, John Venn or Gottlob Frege are other authors who have stood out in the field of logic and especially the latter who caused a real revolution with his theories. Hence, he is considered, along with the aforementioned Aristotle, as the most important logician in all of history. And it is that he established the concepts of proof, predicate logic or formal language.
Classification according to type
Aristotle is considered the father of the formal logic. Instead, the informal logic refers to the methodical examination of probable arguments based on oratory, rhetoric and philosophy, among other sciences. Its objective is the recognition of paradoxes and fallacies, as well as being an effective resource to construct speeches correctly.
The natural logic it is the natural ability to reason without resorting to science. The so-called fuzzy or fuzzy logic, on the other hand, it is one that contemplates a certain uncertainty when analyzing the true or false nature of the propositions, similar to the reasoning characteristic of the human being.
On the other hand, the Mathematical logic It is characterized by using an artificial symbolic language and making an abstraction of the contents.
There are other types or classes of logic, such as the call binary logic, which works with variables that only take two discrete values.