From Latin liturgy, which in turn comes from a Greek word that means “public service”, the liturgy is he order and form with which the worship ceremonies in a religion. The term can also be used to refer to the ritual of ceremonies or solemn acts that are not religious.
For instance: “The priest began the liturgy with the reading of a passage of the Holy Gospels “, “The liturgy will begin at 10 am and then the bishop will stay talking with the parishioners”, “The Peronist liturgy was felt in the act of the president with drums and flags”.
The liturgy, in other words, is a set of rites or rituals. Baptism, marriage, birthday celebrations and funerals are part of a liturgy that obeys certain explicit or unspoken rules. At a birthday party, cake is served over the end of the event and the honoree blows out one or more candles.
In the case of religions, the liturgy is stricter and is celebrated according to certain rules that are included in the liturgical books. It is known as Missale romanum or missal to the liturgical book that contains the ceremonies, readings and prayers for the celebration of the mass according to the Roman rite. It is the official liturgical book of the Catholic Church, composed of three parts: the ordinary mass, the saints and the masses for the dead.
Despite the fact that missals have existed since High Middle Ages, the definitive codification of the Roman liturgy came in 1570 on the initiative of Trento council.
The Catholic liturgy can have a public, internal, external or hierarchical character. Regarding its classification, it depends on several criteria: according to its minister, it can be pontifical or priestly, if it is celebrated by the pope or a priest, respectively; depending on its purpose, it can be latrutic (from the term latria, which can be understood as worship, reverence or worship of God) or sacramental; depending on its object, it can be psalm or sacramental.
Another way to classify the Catholic liturgy is by focusing on its origin and the place where it is celebrated. In this case, two possibilities are opened: the eastern ones, where the Armenians, the Greco-Slavs, the Coptic rite (originally from Egypt) and the Antiochens are found; the western ones (also known as latinas), which are divided into Roman and Gallican. Until the beginning of the third millenniumBetween the two groups they numbered around twenty-three.
Regarding the sources that constitute it, we can mention the following:
* Jesus Christ: He is the son of God, who was born on Earth and lived among us until he was brutally murdered at the age of thirty-three. It is also called Jesus or Christ. The latter is a translation of Messiah, a Greek term that refers to his unique and special nature, to the fact that he has been chosen by God to represent him;
* Pope: also known as the Roman pontiff or the bishop of Rome. She is the most important figure of the Church as an institution, and is recognized in all parts of the world beyond the religious sphere. It is considered its visible head, its ambassador, since it has the mission of connecting the Church with all areas outside it. Of course, he is also the sovereign of the Vatican;
* liturgical books: are those in which we can find the ceremonies that the Catholic Church determines to administer the sacraments, celebrate Mass and carry out the rest of the functions of a sacred nature. In principle, the communities of Christianity did not have these books, although they arose little by little throughout the first centuries.