The concept of linguistics (term derived from the French word linguistic) names what belongs to or is related to the language. This word also allows mentioning the science what has the tongue as an object of study.

In this sense, it must be emphasized that there are currently approximately 6,000 languages ​​in the world. However, Linguistics when studying them is based on a classification of those that is carried out according to the common origin that they may have. That is, they are ordered according to the family.

Thus, starting from this explanation, we can find Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan, Afro-Asian, Japonic, Korean, Uralic or Indo-Pacific languages, among others.

LinguisticsIn this way, linguistics as a science focuses on the nature and guidelines that govern language. Unlike the philology, a discipline that delves into the historical evolution of languages ​​in writing and in the context of literature and associated culture, linguistics allows us to discover the functioning of a language at a certain moment, to understand its general development.

The modern linguistics arises from XIX century. With the posthumous publication of “General linguistics course” (1916), from Ferdinand de Saussure, linguistics has become a science integrated into semiology. Since then, there has been a need to make a difference between tongue (understood as the whole system) and the speaks (that is, its implementation), as well as reviewing the definition of linguistic sign (resource where the signified and the signifier are grouped).

At twentieth century, Noam chomsky develops the current of generativism, who understands the language as a consequence of the speaker’s mental processing and in the genetic capacity (or innate, in other words) to incorporate and make use of a certain language.

And all this means that the figure of the linguist Simon Dik cannot be forgotten, who is of Dutch origin and who stands out because he is part of another current within this field that concerns us. Specifically, we are referring to the functionalist school that can be defined as that branch that establishes that language cannot be studied and analyzed independently, but that it is also necessary to take into account what is the use that is given to it. the same.

This fact brings with it that within the functionalist school, in which Dik is one of its greatest figures thanks to his ideas and works such as the one entitled Functional Grammar, great value is given to issues or elements such as linguistic variation or pragmatics. The latter field that is dedicated to studying how the context in which the individual finds himself influences the way of interpreting the meaning in question of language.

The study of the language as system can be carried out at different levels: the phonetic-phonological (phonology and phonetics), the morphologic (morphology), the syntactic (syntax), the lexicon (lexicology and lexicography) and the semantic (semantics).

From the point of view of speech, on the other hand, the text as the upper unit of communication Yet the pragmatics, which focuses on both the enunciation and the statement.