The etymology of jurisdiction takes us to the Latin word forum, which can be translated as “forum”. The dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) recognizes almost a dozen meanings of the term.
The jurisdiction can be a jurisdiction: the power of application of legal norms in concrete cases. It is also called jurisdiction Legal status that is applied in a specific locality.
The fueros can be competencies to which the parties to a dispute are submitted. Said powers are those corresponding under the right.
The most frequent use of the concept today is linked to the extraordinary jurisdiction granted to an individual by virtue of a position. In this case, the charters are privileges: it is a benefit that only certain people enjoy and not the common one.
The parliamentary powers, in this framework, are privileges available to members of a Democratic parliament. Those who represent the population in these estates have a certain immunity while exercising their function.
These fueros arose to guarantee the separation of powers and prevent the persecution of parliamentarians opposed to the government. Without the privileges, a senator or a deputy could be accused of a non-existent crime and thus, within the framework of a process, be removed from public life. That is why parliamentarians are granted privileges, which prevent them from being prosecuted or imprisoned, for example.
However, this privilege granted to legislators can be taken advantage of by leaders who, to avoid the advance of legal cases against them, are presented to elections with the aim of entering Parliament and thus obtaining privileges to protect them.
Regarding the origins of the charter, we must go back to the time of the Muslim conquest of Hispania, which took place during the first part of the 8th century and is considered the birth of the kingdoms most important in the Iberian Peninsula. This event brought the end of the unity that the Visigoth kingdom had obtained through the so-called Liber ludiciorum, a body of laws that was promulgated in the middle of the 7th century and had a territorial character.
In each part of the territory the legal response was different, since it depended on the events that took place in front of said breaking off. The reconquest of the peninsula then began, something that brought with it the creation of several Christian kingdoms and the emergence of a new, diverse and plural Law, whose main characteristic was its local nature.
The Christian kings and lay lords decided to give certain privileges in areas with a special strategic or economic value, with the aim of attracting a greater number of settlers. In this way they managed to reinforce border security and promote their growth economic. The name received by the documents in which said privileges that precede the fueros were mentioned is letters pueblas.
Decades and centuries passed, until the beginning of the second millennium approached, when the authorities began to establish local law in writing. For this they collected the rules of various precedents developed a new form of letters with royal privileges that were called in Latin (chartae libertatis Y chartae fori are some of the names) although scholars call them brief fueros since their extension does not exceed the limits of the diploma in which they were drawn up.
In the fueros the customs of the different localities were reflected together with the privileges that the kings received from them and the group of provisions that guaranteed the preservation of the clergy, vassalage and the nobility of each zone.