The adjective intramuscular is used in the field of medicine to qualify what is located or is placed inside a muscle. Muscles, meanwhile, are organs formed essentially by contractile fibers.
It is known as intramuscular injection, in this framework, at a pharmacological route of administration through which a drug is injected directly into a muscle. This way of administering drugs is characterized by its rapidity of action, since in this way the substance is absorbed efficiently.
Some anti-inflammatory, analgesics and vaccines are delivered through an intramuscular injection. The area of application and the amount of medication provided vary according to the characteristics of each case.
To give an intramuscular injection, the following materials are needed:
* a intramuscular needle, which must have a sufficient extension to penetrate the muscle deeply;
* a syringe;
* sterile gauze padded 2 x 2;
* a cloth with alcohol;
* a piece of cotton;
* the drug in question.
The person who is in charge of the application should wear gloves to avoid possible infections and has to clean the area with a cotton ball or alcohol gauze before the injection. After supplying the substance, you should do Pressure with gauze.
Since one of the problems that we must avoid by all means is touching a blood vessel or a nervesBefore taking the first step, we must know in detail the area in which we will apply the intramuscular injection.
The buttocks, the deltoid and the vast are some of the muscles where intramuscular injections are usually applied. Let’s see below a series of characteristics of each of the areas in which an injection of this type can be applied:
* thigh: it is a very suitable part of the body for injections to children under three years of age or for those who must give it to themselves. The process consists of imaginatively dividing the thigh into three equal parts, and then puncturing exactly at the central point;
* hips– Recommended for children over seven months or for adults in general. The patient it should lie on its sides. The nurse should place his hand at the point where the buttock and thigh meet, with the thumb pointing towards the groin and the rest of the fingers towards the head. As you move your index finger in the direction it is pointing, you will soon feel the edge of a bone with the pad. Intramuscular injection should be applied at the central point of the triangle formed by the index and the largest;
* arm: The upper arm muscle is used in patients who have it well developed, that is, the nurse should be able to notice it easily. This muscle looks like a triangle that has one of its vertices at the zone of the armpit. The injection is applied in the center of it;
* buttocks: It is not recommended in children under three years of age because they have not yet developed muscle to a sufficient level. The nurse must uncover the buttock and imagine a line running from the bottom to the top of the hip bone. The application should be carried out below the bone, on the top of the buttocks.
Quick access and speed of absorption are the main advantages of this form of administration. Among the disadvantages, there is the possibility of injury in peripheral nerves, localized infections and local fibrosis. If the intramuscular injection is not applied properly, the patient may suffer severe pain, swelling, and decreased sensation, among other disorders.