Living beings that coexist in an ecosystem develop different types of relations. In some cases, the links are maintained by specimens that belong to the same species and are called intraspecific relationships.
When the participants of a link are organisms that belong to different species, instead, we speak of interspecific relationships. These are relationships that have different characteristics depending on the animals in question.
A parasite and his GuestIn this sense, they maintain an interspecific relationship. An example of this relationship is that between ticks and cows: the former is a parasite that benefits from the cow, absorbing its blood. The cow, in this relationship, does not get any benefit, quite the opposite.
Another interspecific relationship is one that forges a diner with his Guest, known as commensalism. The remora is a fish that can adhere to a organism larger, like a whale, to get around. In this interspecific relationship, the diner gains a benefit but does not harm the host.
The symbiosis it is an interspecific relationship that brings mutual benefits to the species. The clownfish usually hide between the tentacles of the actinias to protect themselves from their predators; the presence of the clownfish, in turn, is beneficial to actin as it provides protection from their own predators.
The tenantism it allows one individual to take refuge in the body of another; the latter may be alive or dead, depending on the case, since the only benefited in this relationship it is the first. A common example is presented by hermit crabs, which take advantage of the shells of dead snails.
On the other hand, we can mention the interspecific relationship maintained by species that compete with each other to stay with a dam. A fox and a wolf can compete to hunt down a rodent and feed on it, to name one possibility. The competence It can also take place to obtain other types of resources, such as light, water or the physical space in which to settle or develop.
The competition relationship between species harms all parties involved, to a greater or lesser extent, since it ends up limiting the access of all of them to these resources. Sea anemones exhibit a behavior of this type: they usually compete to stay with a piece of land they have chosen.
One of the best known interspecific relationships is the predation, although at first glance it is difficult for us to qualify it as such. It is achieved when individuals of one species feed on those of another; the first ones are called predators and the last ones, dams.
It is important to distinguish between the killing carried out by animals such as big cats or eagles, and humans; while the former are born prepared to take on the tough task of maintain natural balance eliminating certain individuals of other species and taking advantage of them to feed themselves, the human being does not have the necessary natural tools, and that is why it has developed a system exploitation based on the use of artificial weapons and crowding techniques.
Among the positive or beneficial interspecific relationships is the mutualism. A clear example is the bond that some species of birds have with mammalian animals such as horses and cows: in short, the former remove ticks, lice and fleas, as a relaxation therapy, from the latter, and the latter instead they offer them food (the insects themselves).
We can also talk about the protocooperation, which benefits two individuals or populations mutually, although they do not depend on this relationship to survive (so much so that they can live separately). Two examples are the pollination and seed dispersal.