The term intelligence It comes from the Latin intelligentia, which in turn derives from smart. This is a word made up of two other terms: intus (“Come in”) and legere (“choose”). Therefore, the etymological origin of the concept of intelligence refers to who knows how to choose: intelligence enables the selection of the most convenient alternatives for solving a problem. According to what is described in the etymology, an individual is intelligent when he is able to choose the best option among the possibilities that are available to him to solve a problem.
For instance: “Juancito is a very intelligent boy: he is four years old and he can read already”, “We were trapped in the elevator for two hours but, thanks to Manny’s intelligence, we managed to open the door and get out.”, «To solve this riddle, you will have to use intelligence».
Intelligence can be classified into different groups according to their characteristics: psychological intelligence (linked to cognitive, learning and relationship skills), biological intelligence (the ability to adapt to new situations), the operational intelligence and others. In all cases, intelligence is related to the ability of an individual to capture data, understand it, process it and use it correctly. It means that it is the ability to relate knowledge and concepts that allow the resolution of a certain conflict, it is a quality that humans and animals possess, only that in their case it is erroneously called instinct.
There are many misconceptions about intelligence, even various concepts and mechanisms have been developed to measure intelligence, such as the I.Q of individuals. However, with them only the logical, mathematical and linguistic capacities of a person are analyzed, obtaining inaccurate results of the true capacity of a person.
If the complex nature of intelligence is taken into account, the concept can only be partially defined and for this it appeals to various procedures and attributes. We will talk about what was raised by the American psychologist Howard Gardner, of the Harvard University, who assures that intelligence can be understood as the potential of each individual that can be noticed and increased through various procedures, but which is impossible to quantify. In turn, it explains the different types of intelligence that exist, these are:
The Logical-Mathematical Intelligence It is the one that allows the resolution of logical and mathematical problems (mathematical operations, arithmetic and logically correct reasoning).
The Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence It consists of fluency in the handling of the written and spoken word (Skill in the use of language, meaning of terms, syntax, pronunciation). This intelligence gives someone the ability to narrate or write poems.
The Visual-Spatial Intelligence It is the one that allows you to create models in the mind, with shapes, colors and textures. Those who possess this intelligence are capable of transforming everything they create in their minds into images. It is what is needed to draw, create designs, pictures and any type of graphic construction.
The Body-Kinetic Intelligence It is the one that allows you to control movements of all parts of the body in order to perform certain physical activities well. It is what is needed to develop activities that require some coordination and an adequate rhythm, such as sports or dance.
Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Intelligence: The first is the one that allows to relate to other living beings (expressions, voice control, gestures), it also includes the ability to understand the affectivity of other living beings. For its part, the Intrapersonal is consciousness. It is what is needed to establish comparisons between different acts and assess what we do and what others do.
The Musical intelligence It is the one that allows you to create sounds, melodies and rhythms. It is required to express emotions and ideas through music.
The Naturalistic Intelligence It is what allows us to understand the natural environment, and develop knowledge in fields related to nature, such as biology, geology and astronomy.
Finally, it should be noted that there is the concept of artificial intelligence, developed to refer to systems created by human beings that are capable of planning, elaborating abstract thoughts, understanding ideas and learning. The Artificial intelligence, also called the Intelligence System, originates from the fusion of the computer science, physiology, and philosophy and it consists of giving intelligent life to an object lacking it. It is developed from programming language codes and according to their complexity, more or less intelligent entities can be created, capable of making good, mediocre or bad decisions. It is the intelligence that robots and devices possess with a certain independence.