The idea of information processing is used to refer to a theory developed in the field of psychology by cognitivist current. It is a way of analyze the functioning of the human mind from a analogy with the work done by the computers (the computers).
According to information processing theory, the human mind develops a sequential and successive operation which begins with the perception and input of the information (a stage known as input), continues with the storage and interpretation that allows to produce a response (the instance of the prosecution itself) and ends with the output of said response (output).
Memory in information processing
In this framework, memory plays a fundamental role. Information processing theory tends to appeal to certain structural models that distinguish between different kinds of memory. The sensory memory is responsible for collecting information, which is stored for a reduced interval in the short term memory. From there, meanwhile, it can be directed to the long term memory.
The information processing, in short, allows incorporate knowledge to the data already stored in memory. In the process, meaning is added to new information by establishing relationships with other stored content, material is organized, and contexts are developed. All these actions make possible the learning.
How computers work
Returning to the analogy with computers, it is understood that the brain is a physical support that resembles the hardware.
On the other hand, cognitive functions, As the language and the memory, are equivalent to software.