The notion of plant is associated with organic being that lives and grows, but does not have the ability to move from one place to another by voluntary impulse. The term, however, has other uses: a plant can be the building design (or each one its floors), the bottom of foot wave factory where a service or product is produced.
Industrial, on the other hand, is that belonging to or relative to the industry. It is known as the industry set of operations that make it possible to obtain, transform or transport natural products.
The Industrial plants, therefore, are the factories where various products are made. These are those facilities that have all the necessary means to develop a manufacturing process. For example: “This is a district full of industrial plants since it is a tax-free zone”, “Explosion at an industrial plant in San Gabriel: three injured”, “In the industrial plant we produce the telephones that are sold throughout the continent”.
An industrial plant is made up of the edifice in itself, the specific facilities (such as HVAC, sanitation, etc.) and machinery. When choosing a place to build an industrial plant, various external factors are often taken into account, such as the means of transport that pass through the area.
In the day-to-day running of an industrial plant, various sciences and disciplines intervene, such as industrial Security (the multidisciplinary area that is responsible for minimizing the risks of accidents) and the Industrial hygiene (Procedures that seek to control environmental factors that can affect the health of workers and neighbors).
The function of industrial plants is to combine human work with the machines found in their facilities to transform raw materials and Energy, following a process that is previously defined. For the equipment to be used to the maximum, the operators must follow certain rules, which vary according to the type of industrial plant and the organization; in mass production there is no room for improvisation.
When choosing one zone Geographical location for an industrial plant takes into account various factors, such as the characteristics of its surroundings, the degree of communication it presents with the outside world, the type of terrain and, not least, the potential future needs of the company.
Classification of industrial plants
According to the nature of the process that is carried out
* Continuous process: they are characterized by working 24 hours a day.
* Repetitive process: the treatment modality that is carried out on the products is by batches.
* Intermittent processThese plants organize their work to meet the specific demands of their customers for one or another product or service.
According to the type of process that predominates
* Chemical: in chemical industrial plants, various raw materials, whether synthetic or natural, are extracted and processed and transformed into other substances, with properties different from the original ones. Its purpose is to improve the quality of life of people through the satisfaction of their needs.
* Mechanical: they are dedicated to building and maintaining the machines that are used in companies related to engineering to carry out the transformation of raw materials into mass-produced products. Industrial plants of this type perform a necessary work for most companies, especially those of transport, chemical, mining and those of services public.
According to the raw materials that predominate in its processes
Within this group, the most common industrial plants are usually timber, oil, carbochemical and petrochemical.
According to the type of products they obtain
The main types of industrial plants from this point of view are the nutritional, textile, pharmaceutical and cement.