The concept of indigenism it can be understood in different ways. According to the first meaning mentioned by the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) in your dictionary, that’s what the set of studies focused on the aboriginal populations of the American continent that are currently found in nations where there is a predominance of european civilization.
Indigenism is also called doctrine what defends the rights of aborigines and mestizos in Latin American countries. This movement promotes economic, social and political demands for these groups.
It can be said that indigenismo is a current dedicated to the investigation and revaluation of indigenous peoples. In this framework, he fights the discrimination that these cultures suffer and fight against eurocentrism.
The roots of indigenismo are found in the colonial period. By then there were already claims and demands to improve the situation of the native settlers. However, in the XIX century this trend lost force, although he later began to recover in the twentieth century.
Indigenism maintains that indigenous people are victims of the system, being marginalized from the society. These communities are oppressed and exploited and often do not receive the benefits associated with progress of civilization.
It is important to bear in mind that there are various branches within indigenismo. Some are based on the claim of the full integration of indigenous people to national and global society, for example, while others demand a recognition indigenous specificity and a compensation for centuries of harm.
In the artFinally, indigenism consists of exalt the indigenous theme. Argentina Liliana Ancalao, a Peruvian man Camilo Blas, the Ecuadorian Mónica Ojeda, the Ecuadorian Oswaldo Guayasamin, the Paraguayan Susy Delgado and the mexican Diego Rivera artists who developed indigenism are considered.
Another of the most relevant figures in this movement was the Salvadoran Alejandro Marroquin, an anthropologist who devoted much of his work to enriching the theory that revolves around indigenism. Among his best-known works in this framework we can mention Balance of indigenism. Report on Indigenous Politics in America, which was published in 1972 in Mexico.
For Marroquín, if we understand this concept as a state policy, its purpose is to pay attention to the problems that plague indigenous peoples and try to solve them so that they can be integrated into the nationality that corresponds to them through the territory in which they are and are found. found before colonization. In his study he recognizes the following classification:
* political indigenism: also known as revolutionary or reformist. Its origin took place when it was proposed that the indigenous people participate in the various transformation projects that were taking place on their lands, such as the revolutions from Bolivia and Mexico. This type of indigenism, Marroquín points out, emphasizes the social claim of the individual and his struggle to conserve his territory. There is also the confrontation with landowners, chieftains, bureaucrats and gamonales;
* community indigenism: this variant of the previous one emphasizes the collective nature of land ownership, as well as the customs and uses of the indigenous community,
* developmental indigenism: it appeared when governments began to worry about the integration of indigenous peoples and their lands to the development of the economy and the market of their respective countries. It is important to remember that, in addition to racial and cultural discrimination, these people suffer the impact of decisions government that carry tasks such as deforestation;
* anthropological indigenism: It is considered part of anthropology, the science dedicated to the study of the human being integrating all its aspects, from the physical to the cultural, and is ideologically related to the developmentalist and the political.