With origin in the Latin word centrālis, the word central it is characterized by being a term with a great multiplicity of meanings. In this case, however, we are interested in focusing only on the definition that presents it as the place or structure where it occurs electric power. Said production can be carried out through different means.
What is known as hydroelectric power station is an installation that takes advantage of sources of hydraulic energy to originate another electrical type. Let’s see, therefore, what is hydraulic energy and what is electrical energy.
In addition to the above, and before entering fully into the definition of the aforementioned terms, it is important that we know that a hydroelectric plant is made up of a series of fundamental facilities such as the dam, the water intakes, the spillways, the house of machines and hydraulic turbines.
EnergyIn general terms, it is an ability or capacity to transform something or set something in motion. The notion is used to name the resource of natural origin that can be exploited on an industrial scale through the application of technology and various resources. Hydraulic energy, in this framework, is a variety of energy that arises from the water movement, taking advantage of the kinetic and potential energy of the jumps, the tides or the currents of Water.
The electricityOn the other hand, it stands out as an essential property that becomes evident in an object through attractions or repulsions between its components due to the presence of protons or electrons. The type of energy based on this property and generated by the potential difference between two points is known as electric power.
The hydroelectric plant, in short, is a installation where the energy generated by the movement of water is used and transformed into electrical energy. This is accomplished by building dams or dykes with waterfalls, usually modifying an existing water course. It is common that, with the construction of a hydroelectric plant, huge lands are flooded and aquatic ecosystems are altered.
There are various types of hydroelectric plants, among which are the following:
Run-of-the-river hydroelectric plant. This can be defined as one in which there is not a significant amount of accumulated water in what is the upper zone of the turbines. It is essential for the operation of the same that yes that there is always a constant flow of water to be able to ensure a certain power.
Hydroelectric plant with reserve reservoir. As its name indicates, this type of plant is characterized by the fact that one or more dams are built so that it can have accumulated water above the mentioned turbines. This in turn makes it possible to differentiate between the power plants used by diversion of the water or the powerhouses at the foot of the dam.
Hydroelectric pumping station. If something defines this type of plant, it is that it achieves a much more rational use of the hydraulic resources that exist in a given area. This is achieved because it has two reservoirs located at different levels and with pumping stations that are the ones that generate the energy that is necessary.