Hiatus, from Latin hiatus, is a concept that has various uses and Applications. The meeting that occurs between two vowels that are part of different syllables. This means that, when the hiatus is generated, these letters can be separated into two syllables.
The grammar distinguish between simple hiatus (when two open vowels or two equal closed vowels meet: “Bilbao”, “Shiite”) e accentual hiatus (the meeting between an open and a closed vowel, or a closed with a tilde and an open vowel: “bakery”, “capital gain”).
It is necessary to clarify previously that in Spanish the strong vowels or also open calls are A, E and O, and the weak or closed ones are I and U. When two open vowels meet in the same syllable or two closed vowels do it, it is produced a diphthong; such is the case of words like City or Passion; when speaking of hiatus, when it appears it divides the sound of one syllable into two.
For the hiatus to occur, the following must occur terms:
* Union of a weak tonic vowel with an unstressed strong vowel (ex: Son-rí-e, ow-ho);
* Join two different open vowels (ex: Te-o-re-ma, le-ón);
* Union of strong atonic vowel with weak stressed vowel (eg: O-ír, pa-ís);
* Union of two equal vowels (ex: Cré-e-me, Chi-i-ta);
Regarding the accentuation of these words, it is necessary to bear in mind that in the first two cases the normal rules of accentuation, namely:
1) The acute words (accented in the last syllable) carry accent whenever they end in N, S or vowel;
two) Grave words (accented on the penultimate syllable) carry an accent whenever they DO NOT end in N, S or vowel;
3) The words esdrújulas (accented in the penultimate syllable) always carry an accent.
It should also be noted that the letter “H” sandwiched between two vowels does not break either the diphthong or the hiatus.
In the metrics, the hiatus is present in the poetic device known as sinalefa, which consists of the pronunciation of the last vowel of a word and the first vowel of the following term, merging them into the same syllable. In this way, by using it, you can get a verse of a shorter length. However, it is important to know how to differentiate between the concept of synalepha and elision, since this second is also produced when two vowel sounds are joined, but it does so by canceling one of them, while synalepha merge.
An example of sinalefa can be the following verse by Garcilaso de la Vega:
“Sal (go to) the people (that in) trépi (do y) fuerte”: the syllables placed in parentheses are read as one.
Finally, it is worth noting other meanings of the term, those that occur in the field of anatomy and geology.
For the anatomy, a hiatus is a fissure or cleft in some formation of the body. The hiatal hernia is an opening in the diaphragm that causes the upper part of the stomach to bulge out, allowing acid to pass into the esophagus (known as gastroesophageal reflux).
With this type of hernia, the stomach enters the thoracic cavity, causing burning and pain. Although the cause of this disorder is not clear, specialists believe that it is due to a weakening of tissues by certain efforts physical that occur suddenly, vomiting or even coughing. Smoking and obesity are among the risk factors.
The geology uses the notion of hiatus to name the stages in which sedimentation does not occur while, in colloquial language, a hiatus can be any type of hole, fissure or slit.