It is called hemoglobin to protein present in the bloodstream that allows oxygen to be carried from the organs of the respiratory system to all regions and tissues. Hemoglobin can be identified as a heteroprotein since, according to the experts, it is a conjugated protein (where it is possible to appreciate a protein part baptized as globin with a non-protein part that is known as prosthetic group).
It should be noted that hemoglobin is a reddish pigment which, when in contact with oxygen, turns scarlet red (the typical color of the blood in the arteries). By losing oxygen, on the other hand, hemoglobin turns dark red, which is the Colour that characterizes the blood of the veins.
Two pairs of polypeptide chains make up hemoglobin and each of them is bound to a heme group. The iron atoms in these sets allow them to bind, in an easy way to reverse, to an O2 molecule. By being united with oxygen, hemoglobin is called oxygenated hemoglobin or oxyhemoglobin. On the other hand, if you lose oxygen, you talk about reduced hemoglobin.
It is possible to differentiate between different types of hemoglobin. The hemoglobin type A, also known as normal or adult hemoglobin, is made up of a pair of alpha globins and 2 beta globins. Hemoglobin A represents about 97% of the hemoglobin in a person adult. The hemoglobin A2 (2 alpha globins and the same amount of delta globins), meanwhile, accounts for less than 2.5% of hemoglobin after birth.
Various pathologies they also generate different types of hemoglobin or alterations in normal amounts. The hemoglobin S is present in some types of anemia, while glycated hemoglobin increases with diabetes.
To establish the amount of hemoglobin present in a person’s blood and thus be able to detect if they suffer from any of the possible forms of anemia, the relevant analysis is performed, which can be included in a routine extraction. Although no preparation is necessary prior to the examIt is essential to indicate to the professional on duty if a transfusion has been received in the previous three months or if nicotine has been consumed minutes before, since any of these situations can alter the hemoglobin level.
One of the most common causes of low blood hemoglobin is a poor diet, not very nutritious; However, it can also be caused by not consuming enough iron, the presence of parasites in the intestines, bleeding caused by stomach ulcers or excessive menstruation, among other factors. A motive that exceeds the will of a person is a surgery, since a lot of blood is lost in this type of intervention. Some of the symptoms present in these cases are weakness and lack of energy to perform common and undemanding tasks, tachycardia and even heart failure.
The Bohr effect is known as the phenomenon by which pulmonary hemoglobin becomes oxygenated, with the consequent expulsion of oxygen present in the tissues, due to pCO2 and pH. The muscles, which, like other types of tissue, metabolize rapidly, when they contract, they produce considerable volumes of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions. Hemoglobin has adapted to be able to send oxygen where it is most needed, and has learned to deal with the accumulations of the two compounds just mentioned. When the amount of pH decreases, hemoglobin has a lower attraction to oxygen, so if it encounters an area where this decrease is taking place, it reacts by releasing it.