From Latin penury, penury is the shortage or lack of essential things. He who suffers hardship, therefore, experiences the lack of something essential for a decent life. For example: “It seems that the hardships in Africa never end”, “When I am president, I will put all my effort to end the hardship of children”, “I’m fed up with hardships and miseries, I don’t know what to do anymore”.
Concepts like deprivation, insufficiency, poverty and indigenceTherefore, they can be associated with the notion of hardship. If a newspaper headlines “Fuel shortage in the city”, is referring to the fact that, in a certain locality, there is not enough fuel to supply the needs.
The hardships, however, are not always associated with what material. The phrase “Juan has been suffering hardships for several months” It may be linked to the fact that said man does not have the necessary means to satisfy his basic needs (such as food or housing) or that he is person live a complicated emotional moment (due to the death of a loved one, a distance, etc.). Of course, both problems can also appear in combination (perhaps “Juan” have no money or affections).
The idea of hardship has its antonyms in terms like wealth or abundance. If lines above we talked about “Fuel shortage” to exemplify how the lack of such material can be indicated, the opposite would be to express that there is a “Abundance of fuel” in a city (the level of fuel reserves allows meeting local needs and also marketing the surplus).
The economist János Kornai, originally from Hungary, coined the term hardship economy to express his critical opinion about the old centrally planned economies that were used in Central and Eastern Europe, in the communist countries. In an article of his authorship that bears the name of this concept, a work of great relevance in the field of economics, he argued that the shortage that was experienced in the European continent during the 70s and 80s, almost chronically, They did not stem from poor planning or poorly defined pricing, but rather from failures in the system itself.
It should be noted that when a good is scarce this does not mean that no one is producing it, but rather that when it reaches a certain price, its demand becomes greater than its supply, and this same phenomenon was criticized by Kornai in his article, taking it as the cause of the aforementioned shortage (for example, this can take place if the government forces too low a price).
Penuria is also the name of a music band that originated in Santiago de Chile in mid-2007 thanks to the intense work of Leonardo Signorelli, a musician who performs various instruments and that he has been responsible for the composition of many of his songs. Thanks to Leonardo’s incessant publishing work on the renowned social network Myspace, the acceptance of other musicians was immediate and soon he achieved the notoriety he hoped for.
The genre of the band goes by the name of Funeral Doom Metal; the term funeral has basically the same meaning as in Spanish, while doom can be translated as death, curse, doom, fate, ruin or destruction, among other possibilities that always point to a conviction or a terrible fate.
The funeral doom metal is a subgenre of the doom metal, which in turn belongs to the genus heavy metal. Doom metal is very slow and heavy and can be easily distinguished from trash and from death metal. The funeral doomFinally, he takes the times of the doom until they become extremely slow and dense, trying to create an atmosphere of despair and desolation, making use of distortions and growls frequently. This explains the choice of the name «penuria» for the aforementioned music group, which seeks to create moments of particular darkness through its lyrics and its melodies.